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本人编写的《字母、音素和音标》一书,已由中国海洋大学出版社出版,我还编有《初中学业水平考试英语中考全攻略》、《武曾平六步教学法之新课标七、八、九年级英语全突破》(六三制)四本(其中,8年级分上下册)、《武曾平六步教学法之六、七、八、九年级英语全突破》(五四制)四本,还编有一本《英文圆体字字帖》。一本《新课标初中英语中考语法》正在编写中。快快乐乐学英语,学好英语更快乐!

及物动词(vt)与不及物动词(vi)的区别  

2008-04-23 18:16:00|  分类: Grammar 语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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及物动词与不及物动词的区别从是否需要宾语来分,实义动词分为及物动词和不及物动词两类。

1)及物动词 后面必须跟宾语意义才完整的实义动词,叫做及物动词(transitive verb)。如:

I believe that the committee will consider our suggestion.我相信委员会将会考虑我们的建议。

“How long can I keep the book ?”Harry asked.哈里问:“这本书我可以借多久?”

2)不及物动词 本身意义完整后面不须跟宾语的实义动词,叫做不及物动词(intransitive verb)。如:

Birds fly.鸟会飞。

It happened in June 1932.这件事发生于一九三;年六月。

My watch stopped.我的表停了。

She spoke at the meeting yesterday evening. 她在昨天晚上的会上发了言。

3)兼作及物动词和不及物动词 英语里有不少实义动词可以兼作及物动词和不及物动词。这样的动词又有两种不同的情况:

a)兼作及物动词和不及物动词时,意义不变。试比较:

Shall I begin at once?我可以立刻开始吗?(begin作不及物动词)

She began working as a librarian after she left school.她毕业后当图书馆管理员。(began作及物动词)

When did they leave Chicago?他们是什么时候离开芝加哥的?(leave 作及物动词)

They left last week. 他们是上周离开的。(left 作不及物动词)

b)兼作及物动词和不及物动词时,有时意义不尽相同。如:

Wash your hands before meals.饭前要洗手。

Does this cloth wash well? 这布经得起洗吗?

4) 与汉语的比较 有时英语动词的及物和不及物的用法,与汉语的用法不一样,请注意下列两种情况:

a)有的动词在英语里只能用作不及物动词,而汉语则可用作及物动词,如arrive到达,agree同意,1isten听。英语里这些动词后面常接介词。如:

We arrived at the railway station at noon.我们于中午到达火车站。(at不能省去)(比较:We reached the railway station at noon.)

Everybody listened to the lecture with great interest.每个人都很有兴趣地听讲课。(to不可省去)(比较:We all heard the lecture.)

Do they agree to the plan?他们同意这个计划吗?(to不可省去)

b)有的动词在英语里能用作及物动词,而在汉语里则不能用作及物动词,如serve为…服务。

Our children are taught to serve the people wholeheartedly.我们的儿童被教以全心全意为人民服务

及物动词后可以加宾语,不及物动词后不可以加宾语!

如果你想要分得仔细一点就看下面的讲解和例句!!

(一、) 分清及物不及物:

分清动词的及物不及物是在英语学习中必须解决的首要问题。动词及物与不及物通常有以下几种情况:

a.主要用作及物动词。及物动词后面必须跟宾语。可以用于:"主+谓+宾";"主+谓+双宾";"主+谓+宾+宾补"结构。如:

He reached Paris the day before yesterday.

Please hand me the book over there.

They asked me to go fishing with them.

类似的还有:buy, catch, invent, found, like, observe, offer, prevent, promise, raise, find, forget, receive, regard, see, say, seat, supply, select, suppose, show, make, take, tell....

b.主要用作不及物的动词。不及物动词后面不跟宾语。只能用与:"主+谓"结构。

This is the room where I once lived.

类似的还有:agree, go, work, listen, look, come, die, belong, fall, exist, rise, arrive, sit, sail, hurry, fail, succeed....

c.既可以用作及物又可以用作不及物的动词,其意义不变。如begin 都是作"开始"讲。everybody , our game begins. let us begin our game. 类似的还有:start, answer, sing, close, consider, insist, read, learn, prepare, pay, hurt, improve....

d.既可以用作及物又可以用作不及物的动词,其意义完全不同。

这类动词作不及物动词是一个意义;而作及物动词时却是另一个意义。如lift作不及物动词时是指烟雾的"消散"。we saw the mountain when the clouds lifted. 作及物动词时是"升高;举起"。

He lifted his glass and drank.

类似的还有:beat vi.跳动 vt. 敲、打; grow vi.生长 vt. 种植

play vi.玩耍 vt. 打(牌、球),演奏 smell vi.发出(气味) vt. 嗅

ring vi.(电话、铃)响vt.打电话 speak vi.讲话 vt. 说(语言)

hang vi. 悬挂 vt. 绞死 operate vi.动手术 vt. 操作

及物动词不需要介词

在英语错误中,"及物动词+介词+宾语"(transitive verb+preposition+object),是常见的一种。所谓及物动词,就是谓语动词(predicative verb),不必通过介词引荐宾语。相反的,不及物动词(intransitive verb)是不带宾语的。有许多动词,虽然性质是及物的,但不一定要有宾语,如下列的①a和②a便是这种情形:

①a. We study every day.

  b. Do you study English every day.

②a. Please write clearly next time.

  b. Can you write your composition now?

如果本质上就是不及物动词,就不会有宾语;若要宾语,就要借介词之助,一起连用才行,如③b和④b;③a和④a是错的;

*③a. The children are listening the music.

   b. The children are listening to the music.

*④a. She is laughing the crippled man.

   b. She is laughing at the crippled man.

反之,及物动词不必靠介词,就可以带宾语,如上述的①b和②b ,又如⑤和 ⑥:

⑤ John is giving a book to me.

⑥ Who will answer this question?

如果无意中把介词加上,就错了,如:

*⑦ Who will answer to this question?

下列这句从房地产广告中看到的句子,也犯了同样的错:

"We have many buyers awaiting for available units here."

"Awaiting"是个及物动词,后面的介词"for"是多余的,要去掉;不然把"awaiting"改为"waiting for"也行。

许多人习惯上喜欢把介词加到及物动词后面,然后才带出宾语。最常见的是"emphasize/stress on/upon"和"discuss about",如:

⑧ Singaporeans seem to have emphasized on material gains.

⑨ In our education system, we stress upon examination results.

⑩ World leaders spent a lot of time discussing about worsening economic problems.

显然的,这三句里的介词"on/upon"和"about"是多余的,不必要的。

下面是些类似的错误:

● The young must obey to their elders.

● Do not approach to that odd-looking man.

● The audience attacked on the rude speaker.

● Nothing can escape from his parents' eyes.

● Do you hope to serve for your nation?

● When did Susan marry with Paul?

介词"to, on, from, for, with"都要去掉才对。

为什么会有这些错误呢?主因是分不清楚及物动词和不及物动词的性质。其次,就是对同一个动词及其名词的句型有些混淆。解决之道有二。第一,要把"及物动词+宾语"和"不及物动词+介词+宾语"划分清楚,如:

I did not answer him./ I did not reply to him.

He reached Londan yesterday./ He arrived in London yesterday.

第二,把及物动词转化为名词,然后加上适当的介词和宾语,如:

Don't approach such a person.

Is oral practice a good approach to language teaching?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
       

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