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Unit 10 Frightening nature--知识精讲  

2008-08-08 07:51:57|  分类: 高中英语(人教修 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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高二英语Unit10 Frightening nature知识精讲

. 本周教学内容:

Unit 10 Frightening nature

 

. 教学目标:

1. Master some phrases and sentence patterns

2. Talk about natural disasters: volcanoes and typhoons

3. Write a creative writing

 

. 教学重点与难点: 

Learn about Ellipsis

 

. 具体内容:

Background information

Volcanoes

There are thousands of volcanoes all over the world. What makes volcanoes? What happens?

The inside of the earth is very hot. Because it is very, very hot, the rock has melted like ice. It has become liquid, like water. It is always boiling, like water in a kettle. If you have seen a kettle boiling, you know that the steam and boiling water try to get out. The very hot melted rock inside the earth also tries to get out. Usually it cannot because the outside of the earth is too thick and strong.

But in some places the outside of the earth is thin and weak. Sometimes a crack appears. The hot melted rock, which we call “ lava ”, pushes up through the crack and bursts through. Steam and gas shoot up into the air and the hot melted lava pours out. Big pieces of rock may be thrown high into the air.

After a while the volcano becomes quiet again. The melted lava becomes hard. Later the same thing happens again and again. Each time more hot lava pours out on top of the cold lava and then becomes hard. In this way a kind of mountain is built up, with a hole down the middle . Perhaps the volcano will then be quiet and no more lava will burst out. Perhaps it will start again hundreds of years later.

Although there are thousands of volcanoes in the world, most of them are dead. Only about 500 sometimes start to throw out lava again. A famous volcano which is now dead is Mount Fujiyama in Japan. It is covered with snow in winter.

Vesuvius is the name of a very famous volcano in Italy. It first came to life many, many years ago. It was quiet for hundreds of years. Then in the year 79 it suddenly burst. A great cloud of smoke shot up into the sky with great burning rocks, which fell all around. Hot lava poured down its sides. About 3000 people were killed.

This has happened again many times since that year. Sometimes no damage was caused, or only little damage. But there was serious damage in the years 472, 1631, 1794, 1861, 1872 and 1906. You can see that a volcano can stay alive for many years. In 1906 part of the top of the mountain fell off. There was also serious damage in 1914 but there has not been any since last year.

Fire and smoke coming from the top of the mountain have always made people curious about the source of that fire and what the interior of the earth might look like. The power, heat and bright red and orange colors of melten rock are as fascinating as ever. Many accidents have happened to people who are drawn too close to observe this maginificent spectacle.

People have always known volcanoes to be dangerous. Nonetheless, we find human communities and villages built at the foot of many volcanoes everywhere around the world. This is because the earth around volcanoes is very fertile, so farmers were always attracted to plant their crops near these mountains. Also, the fact that some volcanoes have long periods of time without being active, has often given people a sense of security. Some volcanoes that had been inactive for many generations and were thought to be dead, suddenly sprang back to life and killed thousands of people.

 

Tornado

The phenomenon usually occurs on a hot, sticky day with south winds and an ominous sky. From the base of a thunderhead, a funnel-shaped cloud extends a violently twisting spout toward the earth. As it sucks in matter in its path, the twister may turn black, brown, or occasionally even white. The moving cloud shows an almost continuous display of sheet lightening. It lurches along in a meandering path, usually northeastward, at 25 to 40 miles per hour. Sometimes it picks up its finger from the earth for a short distance and then plants it down again. The funnel is very slender, its wake of violence averages about 400 yards wide. As the tornado approaches, it is heralded by a roar as of hundreds of jet planes or thousands of railroad cars. Its path is a path of total destruction. Buildings literally exploded as they are sucked in by the tornado’s low-pressure vortex and by its powerful whirling winds. The tornado’s lifetime is as brief as it is violent. Within a few tens of miles, it spends its force and suddenly appears.

 

Earthquakes

Earthquake is a sudden, violent shaking of the earth’s surface. It’s a kind of crustal movement form of expression.

Earthquake is regarded as one of the most damaging forces known to man: since records began to be written down, it has been estimated that earthquake-related fatalities have been numbered in the millions, and that earthquake-related destruction has been beyond count.

The great majority of all earthquakes occur in two specific geographic areas. One such area surrounds the Pacific Ocean and its contiguous land masses. The other extends from the East India to the Atlas Mountains, including the Himalayas, Iran, Turkey, and the Alpine regions. It is in these two great belts or zones that ninety percent of all earthquakes take place. As to our country, a large number of earthquakes happened in North China and Northwest China. The powerful earthquake of Tangshan happened in the city of Tangshan, Hebei Province on July 28th, 1976, which caused more than 240,000 deaths and the whole city was destroyed.

 

Typhoons

Typhoons are frequent along the southeast coast of China and on the south Chinese island Taiwan and Hainan. They can cause a lot of damage and even loss of life. Still, to people who are used to them, they are mostly a nuisance and seldom a serious threat. If you are living in an area where typhoons occur, people usually know how to prepare for them. Typhoon is a Chinese loan word that is now used I English. Similar kinds of winds are called huricanes or cyclones.

 

Language Points

1. threat n.1)威胁;恐吓  2)凶兆

carry out a threat to do sth. 扬言要做某事

be a threat to sb’s life

relieve the threat of flood

她威胁说要把我的秘密公开。

她恐吓说要把那张照片公开。

核武器威胁着世界的和平与安全。

2. be scared/ frightened to death

starve to death; burn to death; work to death; bore to death; put to death; shoot to death; sentence to death

如果你把他打死,你肯定会判死刑。

解放前,每年都有成千上万的人饿死。

3. on end 竖着;连续地

set sb’s hair on end 使人毛骨悚然

It has been snowing for a week on end.

The terrible sight made her hair stand on end.

bring ….to an end  使……终止

come to an end  完毕;结束

put an end to  使……终止

end up with ……告终

from first to end 从头到尾

make ends meet 使收支相抵;量入为出

the ends of the earth 边远地区;天涯海角

4. 有的形容词只能做表语或宾语补足语,不能用作前置定语。

alive; alone; awake; afraid; asleep; ashamed

It’s not very easy to fall asleep in a sleeping car.

5. rise& arise 

rise:(太阳;月亮)升起;起来;(物价)上涨;(水)高涨

arise:(问题、困难)发生;产生;出现;起(风、雾)

The sun rises in the east.

He rises early every day.

Raise your right hand.

The farmers raised crops and cattle.

6. tell from 把甲乙区分开来

The twin brothers look so alike that I can hardly tell one from the other.

You should learn to tell true friends from false ones.

7. 在某些句子结构中,不定式虽然表示被动的意思, 但仍用主动形式。

He gave me some books to read.

We found the report easy to understand.

English is very hard to learn.

在上述句子中,不定式虽然与它所修饰的名词或代词构成动宾关系,但同时与另一个名词有主谓关系,这是主动形式表示被动意义。但如果不定式不与句中的另一个名词构成谓语关系,在表示被动时仍用不定式被动式。

Have you anything to be repaired?

Let’s visit the room to be used as the reading room.

8.“ with + 介词短语复合结构,表示行为方式或伴随情况。

The teacher came in, with a book in his hand.

She sat there with tears on her cheeks.

所有的灯开着,我们的教室非常明亮。

他习惯于开着窗户睡觉。

她坐在那儿读书,泪流满面。

9. Look at the following pictures and describe how things could have happened.

掌握情态动词+动词完成时

1

should

+ have done

ought to

原本该……但未做到

2

should not

         + have done

ought not to

原本不该但做了

3

could

might   + have done

would

原本可能/……但未发生

4

could

might  + not have done

would

原本可能/不会……但发生了

5

needn’t have done

原本不必做……但做了

    例:

1. I _______ you a more valuable present for your birthday, but I was short of money at that time.

A. must have bought

B. would have bought

C. had bought

D. would buy

2. The soldier died in the hospital. He _______ if the doctor ______ on him two hours earlier.

A. had been saved; was operated

B. could have been saved; had operated

C. could be saved ; had operated

D. might be saved; operated

3. Without your help, I _______ exam last night.

A. failed in

B. would have failed

C. wouldn’t pass

D. would fail

4. You _______ this morning if you really wanted to see it yourself.

A. ought to come

B. could come

C. ought to have come

D. must have come

5. He _______ the examination _______ he wasn’t careful enough.

A. could have passed; if

B. would pass; because

C. should have passed; but

D. had passed ; so

答案:BBBCC

10. live; living; alive; lively; life

live adj. 活的;有生命的;真的;活生生的;带电的;实况的;燃着的。

living adj. 活的,多数情况下做定语,也可以做表语。可用做名词,指生活方式,生计;the living 活着的人。

alive adj. 活着;做表语

lively adj. 生动的;有生气的

life n. 生命;生活

    例:

1. No man ______ is greater than he.

A. living         B. alive                  C. live                   D. lively

2. He was badly wounded in the head, but still ______ and he is the greatest hero _____.

A. dead; living               B. hurt; alive

C. alive; living               D. alive; alive

答案:AD

11. at hand 仅在手边;在附近;即将到来的

I always keep a dictionary at hand.

I haven’t my book at hand, but I’ll show it to you latter.

I want you to be at hand during my interview with the police.

Final examination is on the way

hand in hand 手拉手

in/ on hand 手头上

by hand 手工

12. all of a sudden 突然的;冷不防的;意外的

All of a sudden she burst out crying.

All of a sudden the lights went out.

Life seemed, all of a sudden, empty and meaningless.

13. be done for 完蛋了,不行了,累死了

If Jim fails that test, he is done for.

I’m afraid these shoes are done for; throw them away.

Don’t say our team is done for.

At the end of a long day, I’m just about done for.

14. upset

adj. 心烦意乱的;不安的

She was very upset when the dog died.

v. 打乱;使烦恼;使肠胃不适

His plans were upset by the change in the weather.

The news quite upsets him.

The foreign food upset me.

n. 倾覆;扰乱

a complete upset of our plans 我们的计划乱七八糟

a stomache upset 肠胃不适

15. upon + ( 表示动作) 名词/ 动名词……

Upon his return from Europe, he set to work in heart.

He was greeted by the prince Minister on his arrival at the airport.

16. more…than

1)与其说……不如说……

He looked more asleep than dead.

She is more diligent than wise.

2)比……

This park is more beautiful than that one.

He is more diligent than I .

17. hold one’s breath 屏息

take a deep breath 深呼吸

take breath 喘息

loose one’s breath 喘不过气

be out of breath 上气不接下气

 

【典型例题分析】

1. Susan, go and join your sister cleaning the yard? 

Why______? John is sitting there doing nothing.

A. him            B. he              C.I          D. me

2. You ______ the flowers . Look, it’s raining now.

A. mustn’t have watered

B. might have watered

C. could have watered

D. needn’t have watered

3. I can’t find my bag. It ______ stolen just now.

A. has                         B. must have been

C. will have been           D. had

4. It _______ , for the ground is wet.

A. must rain                                B. must be going to rain

C. must have rained                            D. ought to rain

5. What has happened to John . I don’t know . He _______ lost.

A. may have gotten

B. might get

C. can have gotten

D. ought to get

6. ______ time, he will make a first-class tennis player.

A. Having given       B. To give          C. Giving        D. Given

7. —The boys are not doing a good job at all, are they?

  —_______.

A. I guess not so

B. I don’t guess

C. I don’t guess so

D. I guess not

8. Broadly speaking, I would agree with Shirley, though not ______.

A. widely

B. thoroughly

C. entirely

D. extensively

9. All the flowers now raised here have developed from those _____ in the forest.

A. once they grew

B. they grew once

C. they once grew

D. once grew

10. Mr Smith, ______ of the _____ speech, started to read a novel.

A. tired; boring

B. tiring; bored

C. tired; bored

D. tiring; boring

答案:1—5 DDBCA     6—10 DDCCA

解析:

1. D    在自由对话中,常用人称代词的宾格代替主格。

2. D    needn’t have done 不必做的事做了

3. B  must have done 对过去发生的事做出判断

4. C  must have done 对过去发生的事做出判断

5. A  may have done 或许已经……

6. D    Given time 做条件状语,相当于条件状语从句If he was given time

7. D    I guess not. 我认为他们没有做好工作。相当于I guess they are not doing a good job.

8. C    though not entirely 相当于though I don’t agree with her entirely

9. C    先行词是those. they once grew 前省略了关系代词whichthat. 副词once 要放在行为动词前。

10. A ing 结尾的形容词与物有关;以ed结尾的形容词和人有关。

 

【模拟试题】

A

Some things never change. And when it comes to parental love, you can be sure it will stand the test of time. It doesn’t matter whether it is human parents or parents deep in the sea among the fishes.

Disney’s latest cartoon, “Finding Nemo”, tells a moving story of a father fish called Marlin and his son Nemo.

Marlin loses his wife and a whole family of unhatched(未孵化的)eggs to a huge shark(鲨鱼). Only one fish egg remains: Nemo. Marlin will protect his young son at all costs. So, Marlin becomes afraid of almost everything in the ocean. That makes him overprotective.

But all children grow up, and overprotection always comes at a price. Marlin’s nagging(唠叨)makes Nemo feel that he doesn’t need his dad telling him what to do. So on his first day of school, Nemo and some friends swim to the edge of their coral reef, a place Marlin always thinks is very dangerous. When Marlin shouts at Nemo to come back, Nemo refuses to listen to him and swims out to a boat in the distance. Suddenly, he gets caught by some divers.

So begins Marlin’s journey to find Nemo, who ends up in an aquarium(鱼缸)in an office in Australia. Soon, the worried father runs into Dory, a forgetful blue fish, who promises to help Marlin find his son. Meanwhile, Nemo misses his father terribly. He soon hears that he will be given to an eightyearold girl who likes to kill fish.

Can Marlin find his son before it’s too late?

Marlin overcomes his shyness and anxieties(焦虑)and Nemo discovers his own, and his father’s hidden strengths. It celebrates the relationship between fathers and their sons. Parents’ wish to protect their children can drive them away. And no matter how much children want independence(独立), they still need their parents.

“Finding Nemo” was released(放映)in the US on May 30. Earning about US$70.6 million in just three days, it has set a new opening record for a cartoon.

1. The passage is mainly about______.

A. how the cartoon was produced.  

B. why the cartoon was so popular.

C. how great parental love is.      

D. a father’s journey to find his son Nemo

2. Marlin is afraid of almost everything because_________.

A. he is very shy by nature.            

B. he doesn’t want to be killed like dead wife.  

C. he doesn’t like his son at all.            

D. losing his wife and the other children makes him very frightened.

3. What does Nemo like?

A. He likes living in an aquarium.       

B. He wants to be independent from his father.

C. He loves playing and hates going to school.

D. He likes trying adventurous things.

4. The following are mentioned in the passage EXCEPT_______.

A. how Nemo gets caught.       

B. how to be a sensible father and son.

C. whether Marlin successfully saves his son.

D. that the cartoon was very popular in the USA.

 

B

We are all called upon to make a speech at some points in life, but most of us don’t do a very good job. This article gives some suggestions on how to give a good speech.

So, you have to give a speechand you’re terrified. You get nervous, you forget what you want to say, you stumble(结结巴巴)over words, you talk too long, and you bore your audience. Later you think, “Thank goodness, it’s over. I’m just not good at public speaking. I hope I never have to do that again.”

Cheer up! It doesn’t have to be that bad. Here are some simple steps to take the pain out of speech making. Ask yourself the purpose of your speech. What is the situation? Why are you speaking? Then, gather as many facts as you can on your subject. Spend plenty of time doing your research. Then spend plenty of time organizing your material(材料)so that your speech is clear and easy to follow. Use as many examples as possible, and use pictures, charts, and graphs if they help you make your points more clearly. Never forget your audience. Don’t talk over their heads, and don’t talk down to them. Treat your audience with respect.

Just remember: be prepared. Know your subject, your audience, and the situation. Be brief (简洁). Say what you have to say and then stop. And be yourself. Let your personality come through so that you make persontoperson contact with your audience.

5. Paragraph 2 suggests_____________.

A. many people are afraid of giving a speech.

B. many people are happy to give a speech.

C. many people do not prepare for a speech.

D. many people talk too long.

6. All of the following are true EXCEPT that________.

A. few people know how to make good speeches.

B. a speaker does not need to organize his speech.

C. research is important in preparing a speech.

D. there are simple steps you can take to improve your speaking ability.

7. The title for this passage may be_______.

A. Do Not Make a Long Speech         

B. Try to Enjoy a Speech

C. How to Prepare For a Speech        

D. How to Give a Good Speech

[参考答案]

1—4 CDBC      5—7 ABD

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