登录  
 加关注
查看详情
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

学好英语 改变人生

胜利一中英语教学博客

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

本人编写的《字母、音素和音标》一书,已由中国海洋大学出版社出版,我还编有《初中学业水平考试英语中考全攻略》、《武曾平六步教学法之新课标七、八、九年级英语全突破》(六三制)四本(其中,8年级分上下册)、《武曾平六步教学法之六、七、八、九年级英语全突破》(五四制)四本,还编有一本《英文圆体字字帖》。一本《新课标初中英语中考语法》正在编写中。快快乐乐学英语,学好英语更快乐!

非谓语的常见误用情况  

2009-02-16 15:05:58|  分类: Grammar 语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

由于自身的特点和复杂性,非谓语动词是较难掌握语法项目之一,也是各类考题热点命题方向。非谓语动词内容很多,因此命题的知识点也有很多。各类考题除了考查非谓语动词的基本功能外,还考查非谓语动词的形式变化以及动词与非谓语动词的不同搭配等。

  易错点回顾:

1. 下面短语中的to是介词,后面只能跟名词或动名词:

  devote oneself/one’s time, energy, etc. to(投入……),get down to(着手干……),lead to (通向,导致),object to(反对),pay attention to (注意),look forward to (盼望),be used to (习惯于),stick to (坚持)等。

   此种情况分类如下:

一、动词+介词to+动名词

  1. admit to doing sth 承认做了某事

  2. apply to doing sth 适用于做某事

  3. object to doing sth 反对做某事

  4. see to doing sth 负责做某事

  5. stick to doing sth 坚持做某事

  6. take to doing sth 喜欢上做某事,逐渐习惯做某事。

  7. lead to通向       

  8. see to 负责 

二、动词+宾语+介词to+动名词

   9.devote oneself to doing sth专心致力于做某事把……献给做某事;献身于做某事

  10. limit sth to doing sth 把…限制在做某事的范围内

  11. reduce sb to doing sth 使某人沦为做某事

  12. give one’s life to doing sth 献身于做某事

  13. give one’s mind to doing sth 专心做某事

  14. have a dislike to doing sth 厌恶做某事

  15. have an eye to doing sth 注意做某事

  15. have an eye to doing sth

  16. have an objection to doing sth 反对(反感)做某事

  17. pay attention to doing sth 注意做某事

  18. set one’s mind to doing sth 决心做某事

三、be+形容词(含过去分词)+介词to+动名词

  19. be equal to doing sth 等于做某事,能胜任做某事

  20. be used to doing sth 习惯于做某事

  21. be opposed to doing sth 反对做某事

  22. be reduced to doing sth使某人沦为做某事

  23. be devoted to doing sth 把时间(钱,精力等)献给做某事

  24. be limited to doing sth把……限制在做某事的范围内

四、其他结构+介词to+动名词

  25. get down to doing sth开始做某事,认真处理某事

  26. look forward to doing sth 盼望做某事

 五、to作介词(后接名词、动名词)短语一览

be / get / become used to 习惯于        

be given to 喜欢;癖好

be related to  与…有关系      

be addicted to 沉溺于;对…上瘾 

be opposed to  反对          

devote oneself to献身于;专心于

be devoted to 致力于;忠诚于    

be admitted to 被…录取;准进入

be reduced to 沦为            

reduce…to…使…沦为

be attached to附属于;喜欢;依恋      

be adjusted to  适应

be known to  为…所知          

be married to  和…结婚

be sentenced to被判处          

be connected to  和…连在一起

be exposed to  暴露于;遭受     

be compared to 被比喻成

compare… to…把…比作…     

be engaged to 与…订婚

be / become / get accustomed to  accustomed to  惯于;有…习惯

be engaged to 与…订婚      

get down to 着手做      

lead to 导致

object to反对;不喜欢;不赞成      

put one’s mind to全神贯注于

give rise to 引起      

look forward to  盼望     

stick to  坚持

pay attention to  注意   

attend to 专心;注意;照料 

see to  负责;注意

contribute to对…作贡献;有助于      

make contributions to对…作贡献

apply oneself to 致力于    

come close to几乎;将近   

reply to 回答

add to 增加     

add up to  加起来     

in addition to除…之外

turn to转向;求助于   

feel up to 能胜任于    

look up to 尊敬

admit to承认     

belong to 属于   

take to 喜爱;开始

cling to 附着    

fall to 开始    

respond to 回答;对…作出回应

accustom oneself to 使自己习惯于  

amount to等于  

prefer… to…更喜欢

set an example to 给…树立榜样    

refer to 谈到;参考;查阅 

agree to sth. 同意某事 (比较:agree to do sth.  同意做某事)

prefer… to…更喜欢     

take / make a trip to到…地方去

join…to…把…和 …连接起来     

turn a blind eye to对…视而不见

turn a deaf ear to 对…充耳不闻   

show honor to向…表示敬意 

put an end to(bring… to an end) 结束    

set fire to 放火烧……

drink (a toast) to 为……干杯     

propose a toast to 提议……

happen to… 发生了……事  

occur to sb. 想起;想到 

total up to 总计达

be close to 几乎;将近  

hold to 坚持;抓住   

help oneself to 随便用……

hold on to  抓住;固守  

do harm to 对……有害处 

do wrong to 冤枉某人

date back to 追溯到     

when it comes to… 谈到……时

come to 来到;达到;结果为  (比较:come to do sth逐渐做某事)

give an eye to着眼于 

have an eye to doing 打算

the key to ……的答案

describe to  向……描述    

treat sb. to sth. 请某人吃……

trust sth. to sb.把某物委托给某人    

pay a visit to  参观……

access to 进入;取得的方法   

be a stranger to  不习惯;对……陌生 

on one’s way to 在去某处的路上;在达成某事的过程中

be kind to 对……和善   

be important to 对……重要

be senior to   年龄长于……    

be equal to  和……相等

be particular to ……所特有的(比较:be particular about 对……过于讲究;挑剔)      

be subject to 服从;隶属;易遭\受\患

be familiar to 为  ……熟悉        

be similar to 和……相似

be open to 对……开放     

be loyal to  对……忠诚

be helpful to对……有益处    

be useful to对……有用

be good to sb对某人好 (比较:be good for 对……有益处)

be bad to 对……不好

be bad for(比较:对……有害处)

be new to 对……不习惯;对……陌生   

as to 关于;至于

next to(否定词前)几乎;   

be due to do sth.预定要做某事

next to ……的旁边    

due to 由于;归因于……

thanks to 多亏了;由于

owing to 由于;因……的缘故     

in / with regard to 关于

in /with relation to 关于;就……而论  

subject to 在……条件下;依照

be given to 沉溺于   

be related to 与…相关   

get down to着手做

lead to    着手做     

object to  / be opposed to   反对    

 put one’s mind to全神贯注于   

be equal to 胜任   

devote oneself to献身于   

give rise to 引起  

look forward to 盼望 

pay attention to  注意 

be addicted to 沉溺于…  对…上瘾     

according to 根据   

access to 接近(某地的)方法

    contribute to   为…作贡献

[误] His whole family objected to his give up the job.

[正] His whole family objected to his giving up the job.

2. 下列动词后只能跟不定式:

   afford, agree, ask, attempt, choose, decide, hope, expect, intend, learn, long, manage, offer, plan, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish等。

[误] He offered helping me.

[正] He offered to help me.

3. 下列动词或动词短语的后面只能跟动名词:

  admit(承认),appreciate, avoid, can’t help(禁不住), stand(忍受), consider (考虑,打算),enjoy, escape (躲避),excuse, finish, give up, imagine, insist on, mind, miss(错过), practise, put off, risk, set about, suggest(建议)等。

[误] He admitted to break the window.

[正] He admitted breaking the window.

4. 下列动词后既可跟不定式,也可跟动名词,但含义不同:

forget to do (忘记了要干什么) forget doing (忘了干过的事情)

regret to do (指当时或现在遗憾地做什么) regret doing (后悔做了什么事情)

try to do ( 试图干) try doing (尝试干)

stop doing (停止干) stop to do (停下来去干另一件事情)

mean to do (打算干) mean doing (意味着干)

go on to do (继续去干另一件事情) go on doing (继续干同一件事情)

[误] He regretted to hurt his best friend.

[正] He regretted hurting his best friend.

[析]表示"后悔干过……",regret后跟动名词。

5. 下列动词后跟带to的不定式作补语:

advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, intend, invite, like, love, order, persuade, prefer, require, teach, tell, want, warn, wish等。

[误] My father had expected me going to college.

[正] My father had expected me to go to college.

[析]"期望某人干……"是expect sb. to do sth.。

6. 下列动词后在主动语态中用不带to的不定式作补语,但在被动语态中要加上to:

make, let, have, see, hear, watch, notice, feel, look at, listen to等。

[误] The boy was made wash the truck as a punishment.

[正] The boy was made to wash the truck as a punishment.

7. 在easy, difficult, hard, interesting, pleasant等形容词后的不定式用主动形式表示被动含义。

[误] I find the article difficult to be understood.

[正] I find the article difficult to understand.

8. 在be worth, want, need, require后用动名词的主动形式表示被动含义。

[误] The plant needs be watered.

[正] The plant needs watering.

[析]need to be done=need doing,动名词主动形式表被动。

9. 由不及物动词构成不定式且不定式与其有逻辑上的动宾关系时,动词的后面需加适当的介词补充说明前面的名词或代词。

[误] He is well prepared for the exam and has nothing to worry.

[正] He is well prepared for the exam and has nothing to worry about.

[析]worry是不及物动词,且与前面的名词有逻辑上的动宾关系,因此后面需加介词。例1] Having passed all the tests , she felt a great weight taking off her mind .taking→taken。此句的意思是"通过了所有的测验,她感到去掉了一块心病"。weight 与take off 是动宾关系,所以用过去分词形式,taken off 在句中作宾语补足语。

[例2]In spite of his breaking English ,he can make himself understood.

breaking→broken。broken English 表示不连贯的英语。

[例3]I didn’t go to visit the Science Museum on National Day but I hope it soon.

it→to。 为了表达简练,我们可把不定式中的动词和后面的部分省略,而仅仅保留不定式符号to。

[例4] The new college graduate insisted on sent where he was most needed.

sent前加being。 insist 一词后接从句或on doing 短语,动词send和主语graduate 是动宾关系,所以需用动名词的被动式。

【指导·借鉴】

  非谓语动词具有灵活多变的特点,大家在判断使用何种非谓语动词形式时,可遵循以下规律:

1. 对比时间:对照谓语动词的时间,确定非谓语动词的时态形式

    非谓语动词的各种时态形式都是依据句子的谓语动词的时态形式而变化的。一般情况下,如果非谓语动词所表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之后发生,我们就用不定式的一般式;如果表示动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时进行,我们就用现在分词的一般式或不定式的进行式;如果表示动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,我们就用现在分词、不定式或动名词的完成式(特殊情况下,也可用动名词的一般式)。

2.辨明逻辑:从非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系判断非谓语动词的语态

    如果非谓语动词的逻辑主语是非谓语动词动作的发出者,即两者之间存在主谓关系,就用非谓语动词的主动式;如果逻辑主语是非谓语动词动作的承受者,即两者之间存在动宾关系,就用非谓语动词的被动式。

3. 两方面结合,判断时态、语态混合形式

    有些非谓语动词的形式把时态和语态的变化融合在一起,这时,我们可以把上述两方面结合起来判断。在非谓语动词的逻辑主语是非谓语动词动作的承受者的情况下,

  a)如果非谓语动词所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,就用现在分词的被动式;

  b)如果动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之后发生,就用不定式的被动式;

  c)如果动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,就用现在分词、动名词或不定式的完成被动式。

  评论这张
 
阅读(952)| 评论(0)

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2018