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本人编写的《字母、音素和音标》一书,已由中国海洋大学出版社出版,我还编有《初中学业水平考试英语中考全攻略》、《武曾平六步教学法之新课标七、八、九年级英语全突破》(六三制)四本(其中,8年级分上下册)、《武曾平六步教学法之六、七、八、九年级英语全突破》(五四制)四本,还编有一本《英文圆体字字帖》。一本《新课标初中英语中考语法》正在编写中。快快乐乐学英语,学好英语更快乐!

英语八类状语从句的用法归纳  

2010-01-09 10:29:25|  分类: Grammar 语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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英语八类状语从句的用法归纳 

 

一、概说

状语从句即指在主从复合句用作状语的从句。按照其意义,状语从句可分为时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、目的状语从句、结果状语从句、条件状语从句、让步状语从句等。状语从句是高中英语学习中的一个语法重点,也是历年高考重点考查的内容之一。学习状语从句主要应注意引导状语从句的从属连词的用法与区别,以及从属连词在一定的语言环境中的意义与用法。

二、时间状语从句

1. 引导时间状语从句的从属连词很多,常见的有before, after, when, while, as, since, till, until, as soon as 等。

2. 表示时候 while, when, as 的用法区别是:while从句中的谓语动词必须是延续性动词表示带有规律性的每当或当主、从句谓语动词的动作发生有先后时只能用 when当表示一边一边…”随着只能用 as另外,用于此义的 as 所引导的时间状语从句谓语只能是动作动词,不能是状态动词。如下面一道高考题的答案是 B 而不能是A

“I’m going to the post office.” “_____ you’re there, can you get me some stamps?”

A. As            B. While        C. Because            D. If

3. until 肯定句中通常只连用延续性动词表示相应动作结束的时间;在否定句中通常连用非延续性动词,表示相应动作开始的时间,意为直到。如:

He waited until she was about to leave. 他等着一直到她准备离开。

I did not begin to work till he had gone. 他走了后我才开始工作。

4. 表示“一…就”除用 as soon as 外,还可用 the minute, the second, the instant, immediately, directly, instantly, no sooner…than, hardly…when 等。如:

I came immediately you called. 你一来电话我就来了。

Hardly had she arrived when it began to snow. 她刚到就下起雪来了。

The moment I have finished I'll give you a call. 我一干完就给你打电话。

5. every time, each time, (the) next time, (the) last time, by the time, the first time, any time 等以 time 结尾的词语也可用作连词引导时间状语从句。如

Next time you come in, please close the door. 下次你进来,请关门。

He didn’t tell me anything the last time I saw him. 上次我见到他时他什么也没告诉我。

By the time I got home, she had already gone to bed. 我到家时她已睡觉了。

三、条件状语从句

1. 引导条件状语从句的从属连词主要有 if, unless, as [so] long as等。如:

Don’t come unless I telephone. 除非我打电话,否则你别来。

If you watch carefully you will see how to do it. 如果你仔细瞧你会看出该怎样做。

As long as you do your best, we’ll be happy. 只要你尽力,我们就满意了。

2. in case 也可引导条件状语从句,其意为如果万一。如:

In case I forget, please remind me about it. 如果我忘了,请提醒我。

四、让步状语从句

1. 引导让步状语从句的从属连词主要有 although, though, however (=no matter how), even if(即使), whether…or(不论还是)等连词。如

The speech is good, though it could be better. 这次演讲不错,虽然还可以再好一点。

He went out even though it was raining. 尽管下雨,他还是出去了。

2. as 也可引导让步状语从句但要将名词、形容词或副词等提到 as 若提前的是单数可数名词要省略 a / an。如:

Teacher as he is, he can’t know everything. 虽然是老师,他也不可能什么都懂。

3. 连词 while 有时也可表示尽管虽然,引导让步状语从句。如:

While we don’t agree we continue to be friends. 尽管我们意见不同,我们还是朋友。

4. whatever, whoever, however, whenever, wherever 等引导让步状语从句。如:

Don’t lose heart whatever you do. 不管你做什么,都不要灰心。

Whoever you are, you can’t pass this way. 不管你是谁,你都不能从这里通过。

表示虽然 though, although 不可与 but 连用但可与 yet, still 连用。

五、原因状语从句

1. 引导原因状语从句的从属连词主要有because, as, since, seeing (that), now (that)

They can’t have gone out because the light’s on. 他们不可能出去了,因为灯还亮着。

Since you are going, I will go. 既然你去,我也去。

Now that we are alone, we can speak freely. 现在我们单独在一起,可以随便谈了。

2. 除以上提到的大家比较熟悉的引导原因状语从句的从属连词外,when有时也可引导原因状语从句,其意既然。如:

I can’t tell you when you won't listen. 既然你不想听,我就不告诉你了。

3. 有关原因状语从句还应注意以下几点

(1) as since, now that 一样表示双方都知道的原因通常位于主句前,且均不可用于强调结构被强调。

(2) 当表示直接的因果关系回答 why 或有 only, just, all, partly, not, but 等副词修饰时或用在强调结构中都只能用 because

(3) for 有时也可引出表示原因的分句,但它只能位于后面对前一分句加以解释或推断。

(4) 不要受汉语意思影响将表示“因为”的连词与表示“所以”的 so 连用。

六、地点状语从句

引导地点状语从句的从属连词主要有where (的地方), wherever(无论什么地方), everywhere(每个地方), anywhere(任何地方)。如:

I’m not living where I was. 我不在原处住了

You can’t camp where [wherever, anywhere] you like these days. 如今你可不能随便在哪儿宿营。

Everywhere I go, I find the same thing. 不管我走到哪里,我都发现同样情况。

2. 有的同学认为地点状语从句在平时见得不多,误认为考试不会涉及,但恰恰相反,地点状语从句却是英语考试经常考查的一个知识点。请看以下考题:

(1) When you read the book, you’d better make a mark _____ you have any questions.

A. at which     B. at where    C. the place where   D. where

(2) After the war, a new school building was put up _____ there had once been a theatre.

A. that         B. where      C. which        D. when

(3) You should make it a rule to leave things _____ you can find them again.

A. when       B. where       C. then          D. there

(4) She found her calculator ______ she lost it.

A. where        B. when       C. in which        D. that 

以上四题均选where,其意为的地方,用以引导地点状语从句。

七、目的状语从句

1. 引导目的状语从句的从属连词主要有 in order that, so that, in case, for fear等。如:

I hired a boat so that I could go fishing. 我租了一条船去钓鱼。

Take your coat in case it rains (should rain). 带着雨衣以防下雨。

He studied hard in order that he could pass the exam. 他努力学习,是为了能通过考试。

2. 引导目的状语从句 so that 有时可省so that,即单独用 so that 来引导目的状语从句。如:

Check carefully, so any mistake will be caught. 仔细检查,以便任何错误都可检查出。

Bring it closer that I might see it better. 拿近些,使我能看得清楚些。

八、结果状语从句

引导结果状语从句的从属连词主要有so that, so…that, such…that等。如

He was so angry that he couldn't speak. 他气得话都说不出来

He shut the window with such force that the glass broke. 他关窗子用力很大,结果玻璃震破了。

注:so…thatsuch…that中的that有时(尤其在口语中)可省略。

 

英语语法详解:让步状语从句(三大方面)

一、引导让步状语从句的从属连词

主要的有although, though, even though, even if等:

Although he is poor, he’s still happy. 虽然他很穷,他仍然很快乐。

I will try it, though I may fail. 即使我可能失败, 我也要试一下。

We’ll go even if it rains. 即使下雨我们也要去。

【注】除以上提到的大家比较熟悉的引导让步状语从句外,还应注意以下情况:

(1) when while引导让步状语从句。不要认为whenwhile只引导时间状语从句,其实它们也可引导让步状语从句,意思是尽管虽然

She stopped when she ought to have continued. 尽管她应该继续下去,她却停住了。

While I understand what you say, I can’t agree with you. 虽然我理解你的意思,但我还是不同意。

(2) whether…or…引导让步状语从句:

I’ll do it whether you like it or not. 不管你是否喜欢,我都要做。

Whether we help him or not, he will fail. 不论我们帮助他与否, 他都将失败。

(3) whatever, whoever, however, whenever, wherever 等引导让步状语从句:

He does whatever she asks him to do. 她要他做什么,他就做什么。

Come whenever you like. 你爱什么时候来就什么时候来。

二、whatever, however -ever词用法说明

这些词的用法应注意以下几点:

(1) 它们均可引导让步状语从句,意为无论…”

Whatever you say, I believe you. 无论你说什么,我都相信你。

Whoever telephones, tell them I’m out. 不管是谁打电话,都说我出去了。

Whichever day you come, I’ll be pleased to see you. 无论你哪天来,我都欢迎。

Whenever you come, you are welcome. 你什么时候来,我们都欢迎。

Wherever he goes, I’ll go. 不管他去哪里,我也去。

(2) 它们引导让步状语从句时,通常可换成no matter…,如说:

No matter what you say, I believe you. 无论你说什么,我都相信你。

No matter when you come, you are welcome. 你什么时候来,我们都欢迎。

No matter how much he eats, he never gets fat. 无论他吃多少, 他都不发胖。

(3) 注意however以下两类句型结构:

however+主语+谓语:

However you travel, it’ll take you at least three days. 不管你怎么走,至少要三天。

However you come, be sure to come early. 不管你怎么来,一定要早来。

however+形容词或副词+主语+谓语:

However much he eats, he never gets fat. 无论他吃多少, 他都不发胖。

However cold it is, she always goes swimming. 不管天多冷,她都会去游泳。

有时该结构中的主语和谓语可以有所省略:

He was of some help, however small. 他总能帮些忙,不管多小的忙。

I refuse, however favorable the condition. 不管条件多好,我都不接受。

(4) 有时从句谓语可用情态动词

I’ll find him, wherever he is [may be]. 无论他在哪里,我都要找到他。

Keep calm, whatever happens [may happen]. 无论发生什么事都要保持冷静。

(5) whenever有时可引导时间状语从句,wherever 有时可引导地点状语从句:

Whenever we see him we speak to him. 每次见到他,我们都和他说话。

They teach wherever their pupils are working. 学生在哪里工作,教师们就在哪里上课。

三、让步状语从句与倒装

引导倒装的让步状语从句通常用asthough,但不是能用although

Poor though I am, I can afford it. 我虽穷,但这东西还是买得起的。

Much as I like Paris, I couldn’t live there. 尽管我喜欢巴黎,但我不能住在那里。

【注】as 可以在以上这样的倒装结构中引出让步状语,但若不倒装,则不能用as,而与之相反,although在不倒装的结构中可引导让步状语,但在倒装的结构中却不可以用。

英语语法详解:原因状语从句(四大点) 

一、引导原因状语从句的从属连词

主要的有because, as, since, seeing (that), now (that), considering (that)等:

The woolly shrank because it was washed badly. 毛衣因洗得不得法而缩水。

I can’t get to sleep because of the noise outside. 由于外面声音嘈杂我睡不着。

Since [As] we’ve no money, we can’t buy it. 由于我们没钱,我们无法购买它。

Seeing that it’s raining, we’d better stay indoors. 既然外边在下雨,我们最好待在室内。

Now that you are here, you’d better stay. 你既然来了,最好还是留下吧(既来之,则安之)

【注】除以上提到的大家比较熟悉的引导原因状语从句的从属连词外,when有时也可引导原因状语从句(when表示既然”)

I can’t tell you when you won’t listen. 既然你不想听,我就不告诉你了。

二、关于 not…because 结构

该结构中的否定词有时否定主句,有时否定从句,一般要根据句子的意思作出正确或合乎逻辑的理解。若not否定主句,最好在because之前用逗号,否则会引起歧义,如下句在没有特定上下文时就有两种解释:

I didn’t go because I was afraid. 我没有去是因为怕。/ 我不是因为怕才去。

不过若because之前有just修饰,一般认为not 是否定从句的:

You shouldn’t get angry just because some people speak ill of you. 你不要因为有人说你坏话而生气。

三、because 习惯上不与 so 连用

汉语习惯上说因为所以…”,但英语习惯上却不能将 so because 连用:

因为下雨,所以我们呆在家里。

正:Because it was raining, we stayed at home. / It was raining, so we stayed at home.

误:Because it was raining, so we stayed at home.

四、because 从句与 because of 短语的转换

Because引导的原因状语从句有时可与because of 短语转换:

He can’t come because he is ill. / He can’t come because of his illness. 他因病不能来。

I said nothing about it because his wife was there. / I said nothing about it because of his wife’s being there. 因为他妻子在那儿,我对此事只字未提

英语语法详解:结果状语从句(五个方面)

一、引导结果状语从句的从属连词

主要的有so that, so…that, such…that等:

He studied hard so that he passed the exam. 他学习用功,所以考试通过了。

He was so angry that he couldn’t speak. 他气得话都说不出来。

He shut the window with such force that the glass broke. 他关窗子用力很大,结果玻璃震破了。

【注】so…thatsuch…that中的that有时(尤其在口语中)可省略:

I am so busy I have no time to write a letter. 我很忙,连写信的时间都没有。

There was such a lot of rain (that) we couldn’t go out. 雨那么大,我们没法出去。

二、so…that such…that 的用法比较

从用法上看,so后应接形容词或副词,而such后接名词(参见以上例句)。但有时“so+形容词后还可接一个名词,且这个名词总是带不定冠词的单数可数名词(不能是复数名词或不可数名词)

正:He is so clever a child that we all like him. 这小孩很聪明,我们都喜欢他。

正:They are such clever children that we all like them. 这些孩子很聪明,我们都很喜欢。

误:They are so clever children that we all like them.

此时的so…that结构可与such…that结构转换:

It’s such an interesting film that we all want to see it. 这电影很有趣,我们都想看。

It’s so interesting a film that we all want to see it. 这电影很有趣,我们都想看。

【注】在much, many, little, few 这四个词前总是用so而不用such

He had so many falls that he was black and blue all over. 他摔了许多跤,结果全身都是伤。

He earns so little money that he can hardly feed his family. 他赚的钱很少几乎不能养家糊口。

三、结果状语从句与不定式短语的转换

so thatso…that引导的结果状语从句有时可与表结果的so as toso…as to引出的不定式短语转换:

He arrived late so that he missed the train. / He arrived late so as to miss the train. 他到得很迟,结果未赶上火车。

He wrote so carefully that he made no mistakes. / He wrote so carefully as to make no mistakes.

四、so that引导目状语和结果状语的区别

(1)含义上的区别:引导目的状语从句时表示的是一种意欲或可能性,引导结果从句时表示的是一种事实。

(2) 形式上的区别:引导目的从句之前不用逗号(说话时也不停顿),而结果从句之前则通常有逗号(说话时常有停顿);有时引导结果状语从句时其前也可以没有逗号,此时可看从句中是否有 can / could, may / might, will /would 以及should等情态动词,如果没有,则多半是结果从句。比较:

We’ve come early so that the meeting can begin promptly. 我们来得很早,以便可以马上开会。(so that 引导目的状语从句)

We are all here now, so that the meeting can begin at last. 我们现在都到齐了,终于能开会了。 (so that 引导结果状语从句)

I am going to the lecture early so that I’ll get a good seat. 我想早点去听演讲,以便找个好座位。(so that 引导目的状语从句)

I went to the lecture early so that I got a good seat. 我去听演讲去得很早,所以找个好座位。(so that 引导结果状语从句)

另外,so that引导目的从句时有时可放在主句之前,而引导结果从句时却不能:

正:So that he could buy a new car, he saved a lot of money. 他节省了一大笔钱,以便能买辆新车。(引导目的状语从句)

误:So that I could hardly stand, I was tired.(引导结果状语从句不能置于句首,可改为I was tired so that I could hardly stand. 我很累,几乎站不稳了。)

五、so…thatsuch…that有时不引导结果状语句

so…thatsuch…that可以引导结果状语从句,但并不是说它们引导的从句就一定是结果状语。请看以下句子:

I’m so happy that you could visit us. 我很高兴你能来看望我们。(其中的so用于加强语气,相当于very)

It’s such a great pleasure that you are here. 你在这里是非常令人高兴的事。(其中的that引导的是主语从句,句首的it为形式主语)

 

英语语法详解:目的状语从句(三个方面

引导目的状语从句的从属连词

主要的有 in order that, so that, in case, for fear等:

Speak clearly so that they may understand you. 讲清楚些,以便他们能理解你。

He studied hard in order that he could pass the exam. 他努力学习以便能考试及格。

Shut the window for fear that it may rain. 把窗子关上以防下雨。

【注】so that 引导目的状语从句时有时可省略so而只用that,有时也可只用so

Bring it closer that I might see it better. 拿近些,使我能看得清楚些。

I’ll show you so you can see how it’s done. 我将做给你看,以便你知道应怎样干。

目的状语从句与状语短语的转换

为了简洁起见,当目的状语从句的主语与主句的主语相同时,目的状语从句有时可用表目的的不定式短语替换:

He got up early so that he could catch the early bus. / He got up early so as to catch the early bus. 他起床很早以便赶上早班车。

He came in quietly in order that he shouldn’t wake his wife. / He came in quietly in order not to wake his wife. 他轻轻进来,以免把他妻子吵醒。

有时还可与表示目的的介词短语替换(from www.yygrammar.com)

He left an hour early for fear he might miss the train. / He left an hour early for fear of missing the train. 他提前一小时离开,以免错过火车。

一点注意

in case既可引导目的状语从句,也可引导条件状语从句,主要视句意而定:

In case he comes, let me know. 如果他来,告诉我一声。

Tell me in case you get into difficulty. 遇到困难请告诉我。

【注】in case引导目的状语从句,从句有时可用“should+动词原形这样的形式:

Take your coat in case it rains (should rain). 带着雨衣以防下雨。

 

英语语法详解:条件状语从句

引导条件状语从句的从属连词

主要的有if, unless, as [so] long as等:

You can leave now if you like. 如果你愿意现在就可以走了。

As long as it doesn’t rain we can go. 只要不下雨,我们就可以去。

【注】除以上基本的引导条件状语从句的从属连词外,还有的动词尤其是其分词形式(suppose, supposing, provided, providing)和介词短语(in case, on condition that)也可用作连词表示条件:

In case I forget, please remind me about it. 万一我忘记,请提醒我一下。

I will come on condition (that) she is invited too. 如果邀请她来, 那我就来。

He may go with us provided [providing] he arrives in time. 他若及时到,就可以和我们一起走。

Suppose supposing 引导条件状语从句时,通常用于主句为疑问句的场合:

Suppose the boss saw youwhat would he say? 如果老板看到你,他会怎样说?

Supposing he does not come, shall we go without him? 他若不来,是不是不带他去?

条件状语从句的时态

当主句为将来时态或具有将来意时,条件状语从句通常要用一般现在时表示将来意义,而不能直接使用将来时态:

英语语法详解:时间状语从句

引导时间状语从句的从属连词

引导时间状语从句的从属连词很多,如较基本的有before, after, when, while, as, since, till, until, as soon as 等:

Things were different when I was a child. 我小时候情况与现在不同。

We must strike while the iron is hot. 我们要趁热打铁。

It’s a long time since I met you last. 从上次见到你,已有很长时间了。

He waited until she was about to leave. 他等着一直到她准备离开。

除以上基本的引导时间状语从句的从属连词外,还有些本来不是从属连词却可用作从属连词的词:

(1) 表示的从属连词:the moment, the minute, the second, the instant, immediately, directly, instantly, once, no sooner…than, hardly…when等。如:

Immediately he came I told him the news. 他一来我就把消息告诉了他。

The moment I saw him I knew there was no hope. 我一看到他就知道没希望了。

We had no sooner set out than it began to rain. 我们刚出发就下雨了。

Once he arrives, we can start. 他一来我们就可以开始。

(2) 涉及time的几个从属连词:every time(每次)each time(每次)(the) next time(下次)any time(随时)the last time(上次)the first time(第一次)。如:

Every time I see her I’ll think of it. 每次我看到她,我就想起这事。

He felt nervous each time she spoke to him. 每次她和他讲话,他都感到紧张。

He didn’t tell me the last time I saw him. 我上次见到他时他没告诉我。

与时间状语从句有关的时态问题

关于这个问题有两点值得注意:

(1) 当主句为将来时态或具有将来意义时,时间状语从句通常要用一般现在时表示将来意义,而不能直接使用将来时态:

Turn off the lights before you leave. 走前关灯。

I will tell him as soon as he arrives. 他一来我就告诉他。

(2) since 从句搭配的主句的时态通常是现在完成时态:

He has lived here since 1999. 1999年以来,他就一直住在这儿。

Where have you been since I last saw you? 自我上次见到你之后你到哪里去了?

【注】在特定的语言环境中有时也可能用过去完成时或一般现在时:

It seems like years since we last met. 我们似乎几年未见面了。

Yesterday he told me that he hadn’t eaten anything since Tuesday. 他昨天告诉我自星期二以来他一直未吃任何东西。

【注】有时也可见到 if you will 这样的说法,但那不是将来时态,而是表示意愿或委婉的请求(此处的 will是情态动词)

If you will wait for a moment, I’ll go and tell the manager that you are here. 请等一下,我去告诉经理说你来了。

 

 

 

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