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人教版新课标高二必修Book 5 Unit 1 Great Scientists知识精讲  

2010-08-19 07:45:16|  分类: 高中英语必修 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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人教版新课标高二必修Book 5 Unit 1 Great Scientists知识精讲

. 本周教学内容:

    必修5  Unit 1  Great Scientists

 

1. 重点单词短语用法讲解

2. 课文难点句解析

 

. 知识总结与归纳:

单元内容简介:

(一)主题:本单元中心话题是: 如何进行科学研究与科学家的贡献

(二)本单元涉及到的语法现象:过去分词短语作定语和表语

 

. 重点讲解与归纳:

(一)重点单词与短语:

1. Who put forward a theory about black holes? 谁提出了“黑洞”的理论?

    put forward提出;建议;推荐

Can I put you/your name forward for golf club secretary?

我推荐你(提名让你)担任高尔夫球俱乐部的秘书好吗?

He puts forward several interesting plans.他提出了几项令人感兴趣的计划。

It’s an explanation often put forward by our friend.这是我们的朋友经常做出的解释。

put 相关短语

2. Draw a conclusion.得出结论。

1conclusion

1conclusion作名词,意为“结束,结论”。例如:

At the conclusion of the ceremony在仪式终了时

2conclusion相关短语

It is premature to make that conclusion.

A. They showed little inclination to try conclusions with escaping raiders.

B. I will in conclusion say a few words about my visit to Tokyo.

It is premature to make that conclusion.作出那种结论仍为时过早。

They showed little inclination to try conclusions with escaping raiders.

他们不想再跟落荒而逃的袭击者决个胜负。

I will in conclusion say a few words about my visit to Tokyo.

最后,我对我的东京之行说几句。

2conclude

1conclude作及物动词,意为“结束;断定;决定”。

例如:conclude a speech/ an argument结束演说/争辩

We concluded not to go.我们决定不去。

2conclude作不及物动词,意为“结束;断定;决定”。

例如:to conclude(作插入语)最后(一句话)

The meeting concluded with The International.    大会在国际歌歌声中结束。

 

3. Analyse the results.分析结果

analyse vt.   分析;分解

We must try to analyse the cause of the strike.我们得研究一下罢工的原因。

We need to analyse what went wrong.我们需要分析是什么出了差错。

We must make a careful analysis of the problem and then make a decision.

我们必须对此问题进行认真分析,然后再做决定。

4. so famous, indeed, that he attended Queen Victoria to ease the birth of her babies.

—(他的确)太负盛名了,以致于维多利亚女皇生孩子时,都是他去照料,使女王顺利分娩。

attend vt.&vi.

1to be present at; go tomeeting, conference, lecture…)出席;参加

He decided to attend the meeting himself.他决定亲自赴会。

2to look after, care for, serve照顾;看护

Which doctor is attending to on you?哪位医生护理你?

3to go with伴随

The work was attended with much difficulty.这项工作带来许多困难。

4attendance n. the act of attending照顾

There is a doctor in attendance.有一位医生照顾。

There was a large attendance at the concert.音乐会听众很多。

5attend常用短语

The patients are well attended in the hospital.病人在医院得到很好的照料。

He was very tired after the long run, and expected somebody to attend on him.

长跑后他感到非常疲劳,很想有个人来照顾一下自己。

Business has to be attended to.生意是必需要料理的。

Excuse me, but I have an urgent matter to attend to. 对不起,我有件急事要办。

The queen had a good doctor attending on her.王后有个好医生照顾她。

Please let us know if you are unable to attend to the conference.

如果你不能参加会议,请让我们知道。

 

5. But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera.

但他一想到要帮助(那些)受到霍乱威胁的普通百姓,他就感到很振奋。

expose vt.

1)陈列,展示

We expose the goods for sale.我们陈列商品以便推销。

2expose sth. to sb.揭发

He exposed the plot to the police.他向警察揭发这个阴谋。

3)后面接反身代词

expose oneself to sb’s influence使自己受某人的影响。

4expose…to…“把……暴露于……之下(之中),使……受到……作用”。例如:

be exposed to view暴露无遗,被展示,暴露

be exposed to all kinds of weather经受风吹雨打

The baby was left exposed to the wind and rain.那个婴儿被离弃于风雨之中。

 

6. He knew it would never be controlled until its cause was found.

他知道,在找到病源之前,疫情是无法控制的。

1control vt.统治,控制

You are trying to control me as though I were your slave.

你是想把我当你的奴隶控制。

The government tries its best to control prices.政府努力控制物价。

He cannot control his anger.他无法控制自己的愤怒情绪。

2n.控制,统治,掌握

The driver lost control of his car and it knocked into a tree.

司机对车失去控制,车撞到树上。

The car was out of control and ran into a wall.车失去控制,撞到了墙上。

Mr Brown is in control of the shop./The shop is in control of Mr Brown.

布朗先生管理这家商店。

The money is under the control of Mr Brown.钱财由布朗先生掌管。

 

7. The second suggested that people absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals.

第二种看法是在吃饭的时候人们把某种病毒引入体内。

absorb vt.                                      【拓展】

Cotton gloves absorb sweat.棉手套吸汗。

So many good ideas! It’s too much for me to absorb all at once.

这么多好主意!太多了,很难一下子完全吸收。

The old man was completely absorbed in the book.

老人全神贯注地读这本书。

The surrounding small towns have been absorbed into the city.

四周的小城镇已并入这座城市。

 

8. It seemed the water was to blame.看来霍乱的流行要归罪于水了。

blame n.&vt.责备;责任

Many children are afraid of being blamed for making mistakes in speaking English.

很多孩子害怕说英语时犯错误而受责备。

The police blamed the traffic accident on Jack’s careless driving.

警察把那起交通事故归咎于杰克的粗心驾驶。

I am in no way to blame. 决不该责备我。

You must bear the blame for the accident.你必须承担这次事故的责任。

 

9. With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the disease.有了这个证据,约翰斯诺就能肯定地宣布这种污染了的水携带着病菌。

announce   vt.

1to make known publicly 发表,告知,宣布……

The government announced its new economic policies.政府发布了新的经济政策。

The news was announced to the public on TV.这则消息经由电视向大众宣布。

2to state in a loud voicethe name of a person or thing on arrival)宣布(客人的名字,到达等)

His servant announced Mr and Mrs White.他的仆人通报怀特夫妇驾临。

3to make clearly known(事情)显示……;预告

The bright flowers announced that spring was here.鲜艳的花朵显示春天已经来到。

【拓展】

 

10. The water companies were also instructed not to expose people to polluted water anymore.自来水公司也接到指令,不能再让人们接触被污染的水了。

instruct  vt. 指导,指示,命令

    When I met him, he was instructing his son how to deal with the car problem.

当我看见他时,他正在教儿子修汽车。

He instructed me to deliver it to a customer.他吩咐我把东西送去给顾客。

She instructed me in the use of the telephone.她教我使用电话。

Those boys were instructed to wait there.那男孩被通知在那等。

Our teacher instructed that we hand in our papers after class.

老师令我们下课后把试卷交上。

 

11. Apart from the construction mentioned above, you have also learned the following phrases.

apart from在本句中表示“除……之外(尚有)”,相当于besides。另外,apart from还有“除……以外(别无)”之意,这时相当于except for

Apart from maths, she is good at English.

除了数学以外,她还擅长英语。

Apart from their milk, the wool from their coats is used in expensive clothing.

除了羊奶以下,山羊绒可用来制作昂贵的服装。

Apart from a few faults, he is a trustworthy teacher.

除了几处缺点外,他是个值得信赖的老师。

 

12. his friends were enthusiastic and encouraged him to publish his ideas…

……他的朋友都热情地鼓励他把他的想法公诸于世……

enthusiastic adj. 热心的,热情的,热烈的

enthusiasm n.热心,热情,狂热

David is very enthusiastic about the plan.戴维对这项计划十分热心。

They are enthusiastic admirers of that movie star.他们是那位电影明星的狂热崇拜者。

My parents are enthusiastic skiers.我的父母是滑雪迷。

 

13. The Christian Church rejected his theory, saying it was against God’s idea…

基督教教会拒绝接受他的理论,说这种理论违背了上帝的旨意……

reject vt. 抛开;丢掉;拒绝;抵制;n.被拒绝或抛弃的人或物

1vt. 主要用于正式的场合,如外交或商业条款之类,不用于一般的日常生活交往之中,常有下面几种用法:

1reject“拒绝,抵制”,指不肯承认,采用,相信或服从,不肯接受。

They had rejected our request contemptuously.他们轻蔑地拒绝了我们的请求。

2reject“抛弃;丢掉;剔除”,被当作无用的,不能令人满意的或无价值的东西而扔掉。

Several publishers rejected the manuscript.几家出版商都拒绝了这份原稿。

2n. C reject用同一形式可用作名词,注意发音与用作动词时不同。

1)废品,被抛弃的东西,遭拒绝的东西

Some good eggs are found in the rejects.在被抛弃的鸡蛋中又找到一些好蛋。

2)被抛弃者,落选者

Army culls physical or mental rejects from overseas duty.

军队剔除的人是在身体或精神上不适合在海外服役的人。

3reject相关搭配

(二)易混词辨析:

1. defeat/beat/win/gain

四个词都有“赢”的意思,但其用法不尽相同。

1beat defeat是同义词,其宾语必须是“人或一个集体”,如a team, a class, a school, an army等。

defeat侧重在战场上打败敌人,beat常用于游戏或比赛中,但在实践中常替换使用。

2win gain是同义词。gain表示获得需要之物,常带的宾语有experience, strength, time, knowledge, attention等。

win表示在较强的竞争中取得胜利,还可作为不及物动词来用;而在表示“赢得”这一意思时必须是及物动词。

We beat their team by 10 scores.我们队赢了他们队十分。

I tried to beat/defeat him but he was too much for me.我想打败他,但力不从心。

We shall gain experience through practice.我们将通过实践获得经验。

T hey won the battle but lost many men.他们取得了这次战斗的胜利,但也牺牲了很多人。

 

2. attend/join/join in/take part in

1attend指参加会议,上课,上学,听报告等。

2join指加入某组织,团体,成为其中的一员。

3join in指参加某种活动;表示与某人一起做某事则用join sb. in

4take part in指参加群众性活动,会议,往往指参加并持积极态度,起一定作用。

 

3. treat/cure

1treat强调治疗过程,指通过药物,特别的食品或运动治疗病人或疾病,不强调结果。

2cure主要强调治疗后恢复健康,有治愈的意思。

Which doctor is going to treat him for his illness?哪位医生要给他治病?

This new medicine soon cured my cold.这种新药很快治好了我的感冒。

 

4. announce/declare

1announce指正式地“公开;发表;宣布”,侧重“预告”人们所关心或感兴趣的事情,尤指新闻之类的消息。

2declare指正式地,明确地向公众“宣布,宣告,声明”,侧重“当众”发表,多用于宣战,议和,宣判等。

注意:declare后可跟复合结构。

John announced to us his engagement to Mary.约翰向我们宣布他和玛丽订婚的消息。

In 1897 they declared that they believed there was something in nature which gave out radiation. 1897年他们宣布他们相信在自然界存在着能发出辐射的某种东西。

They declared himto be a traitor to the country.他们公开宣布他是国家的叛徒。

 

5. apart from/except for/except/but for/besides

1apart from在表“除……外(别无)”时相当于except for,apart from还有“除……以外(还)”之意。另外,apart from, except for, but for 都可用于句首,但except不能。

2except“除……”(不包括其后的宾语),besides“除了……还”(包括其后的宾语)。另外,besides还可以作副词“并且,而且”。

3but for表示“如果不是由于……”之意(=If it were not for…If it had not been for…)。

 

6. complete/perfect

1complete表示一个整体所需的各组成部分完整无缺,是“完全的,完整的;彻底的”。

2perfect强调“完美的,十全十美的”意义,常用来指对事物好坏程度的评价。

They tried their best to make their work perfect.他们竭力把工作做得完美。

 

(三)难句分析:

1. So between 1510 and 1514 he worked on it, gradually improving his theory until he felt it was complete.于是他在1510-1514年期间连续从事这项研究,渐渐地修改他的理论,直到他感到完善为止。

complete是多词性词,可用作形容词和及物动词。

1complete用作形容词

1complete表示“完整的,完全的,圆满的;十足的”,在句中可以直接修饰名词作定语,而不需改变为过去分词来充当定语。

The library has a complete set of Shakespare’s plays.图书馆有一套莎士比亚戏剧集。

2complete还有“完全,十分”的含义,常常在句中起状语作用。

It was a complete surprise to me.这对我完全是件意外的事。

3complete用作“完成的,结束的”讲时,仍然是形容词,因此在句中可以直接当表语或定语,而不必变为过去分词。

His work is now complete.他的工作现在完成了。

2complete用作及物动词

1complete指“完成”意义时,作及物动词,因此句子可以有语态的变化,但complete后面不应跟不定式而应跟动名词作宾语。

He has completed repairing the car.他将汽车修好了。

2complete还有“使完整,完美”的含义。

I need one more stamp before my collection is completed.

我所收集的邮票还差一张才成整套。

3completely为副词,意为“完全地”,在句中充当状语。

I had forgotten it completely.我完全把它忘了。

 

2. In addition, he found two other deaths in another part of London that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak.

除此之外,他发现在伦敦的另一个地方有两个死亡的病例,与宽街爆发的霍乱有关联。

 

3. Immediately John Snow told the astonished people in Broad Street to remove the handle from the water pump

约翰斯诺马上叫宽街上惊慌失措的老百姓拆掉泵的把手。

    Immediately the clock struck six, all the students began to get up.时钟敲响6点,所有的学生都开始起床了。

Immediately he arrived there, he telephoned a friend of his.一到达那里,他就给他的一个朋友打电话。

Immediately she’d gone, I remembered her name.她刚走我就想起了她的名字。

He came directly I called.我一打电话他就来了。

I want to see her the moment she arrives.她一到,我就要见她。

 

4. Only if you put the sum there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense.

只有当你把太阳放在那儿(中心位置上);天空中其他行星的运动才能说清楚。

 

(四)语法   Grammar

单元语法专区

过去分词作定语和表语

1. 过去分词的意义

1)及物动词的过去分词表示先于谓语动词的动作,与其逻辑主语之间是被动的关系。

例如:

We only sell used books.我们只卖用过的书。

The bridge built last month needs repairing.上个月建造的那座桥需要修理。

2)不及物动词的过去分词表示先于谓语动词的动作,与其逻辑主语之间是主动关系。例如:

You can see fallen leaves everywhere in autumn.秋天你到处可以看到落叶。

Developed countries should help developing countries.发达国家应当帮助发展中国家。

 

2. 过去分词的否定式。

过去分词的否定式,由not/never+过去分词构成。例如:

Not interested in the talk, he left earlier than others.

由于对报告不感兴趣,他比别人先走了。

 

3. 过去分词的功能

1)作定语

单个的过去分词通常作前置定语,过去分词短语则常作后置定语,相当于一个定语从句。

例如:

A watched pot never boils.心急锅不开。

He is an advanced teacher.他是个先进教师。

The play performed by the students was a great success.

=The play which was performed by the students was a great success.

由学生上演的那个剧获得了极大的成功。

The house built in 1970 was burnt down in the big fire last night.

=The house which was built in 1970 was burnt down in the big fire last night.

1970年建的那座房子在昨晚的大火中被烧毁了。

2)作表语

过去分词作表语表示主语的某种性质或状态。例如:

He is gone.他走了。

He remained unsatisfied.他依然不满足。

The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.

如果让学生学得太多,他们会感到糊涂的。

They were very excited at the news.听到这个消息,他们非常激动。

注意:过去分词作表语和被动语态的区别。过去分词作表语通常表示主语所处的状态,而被动语态则表示动作的执行者是谁,通常由by引导短语,或者动作的发出者不明确,不宜说出或不言而喻,没有必要说出等情况。

例如:

The days when we depended on foreign oil are gone.(分词作表语)

我们依靠洋油的日子一去不复返了。

 

模拟试题

I. 选择题:

1. The doctor has ________a new idea on the treatment, which is well thought of by his companions.

A. come about    B. put forward   C. spoken up     D. regarded as

2. The students are busy making preparations for the lecture because they will _____ the competition .

    A. attend        B. join          C. take part in D. attend to

3. I feel it is your husband who ____for the spoiled child.

A. is to blame                    B. is going to blame

C. is to be blamed                                 D. should blame

4. ____he came in, I recognized him.

A. The moment    B. Shortly       C. Soon          D. Before long

5. The warm sunshine ____the coming of spring.

A. declares      B. announces     C. predicts      D. publishes

6. You should read the ______in the car repair manual(手册) carefully before you start to.

A. instruction   B. instructions C. introductions D. explanations

7. Can you work out the problem?    I can’t ______your explain how to do it.

A. but for       B. except        C. apart from    D. unless

8. It is sleeping late in the morning that ______being late for work.

A. devotes to    B. sticks to     C . refers to    D. leads to

9. No matter how I tried to read it, the sentence didn’t ______to me.

A. understand    B. make out      C. turn out      D. make sense

10. Your father likes to play golf; he’s really enthusiastic ______it.

A. by            B. about         C. with          D. on

11. The government ______the diplomatic note from Japan for its unclear attitude to the trade between two countries.

A. denied        B. refused       C. rejected      D. objected

12. The last ______of the play was very impressive.

A. view          B. sight         C. scenery       D. scene

13. —Look! Everything here is under construction.

—Oh, has the museum once ______for exhibiting Nantong kites been pulled down, too?

A. being build                    B. been built

C. having been built              D. built

14. It is ______to travel by air than by water.

A. a lot more excited             B. much exciting

C. a lot more exciting            D. much more excited

15. ________ a sentence before you can understand it correctly.

A. Find          B. Analyse       C. Refer to      D. Look up

 

II. 弗兰克英语特别训练法     完形填空步步高:(第二套  挑战题)    1  C

Step One:完形填空

Washoe is a young Chimpanzee(黑猩猩). She is not  1 ________  chimpanzee , though . Scientists are doing a research  2 ________  her . They want to see how civilized(驯化)she can  3  ________ . Already she does many things a human can do .

For example , she has been learning how to exchange  4  ________ with people . The scientists are teaching her  5 ________ language . When she wants to be picked  6 ________  , Washoe points up with one finger . She rubs her teeth with her finger  7 ________  she wants to brush her teeth .This is done after every meal .

Washoe has also been  8 ________ to think out and find answers to problems . Once she was put in a  9 ________  with food hanging from the ceiling .It was too high to 10 ________  . After she considered the  11 ________  , she got a tall box to stand  12 ________  . The food was still too high to be reached .

Washoe found a  13  ________ pole . Then she climbed onto the  14 ________  , grasped the pole , and 15 ________  down the food with the pole .

Washoe  16 ________  like a human , too . The scientists keep her in a fully furnished(家具齐全的)house . After a hard  17 ________  in the laboratory , she goes home . 18 ________  she plays with her toys . She  19 ________  enjoys watching television before going to bed .

Scientists hope to  20  ________ more about people by studying our closest relative(家属)— chimpanzee .

1. A. foolish        B. ordinary    C. special       D. simple 

2. A. for            B. by          C. to            D. on

3. A. experience     B. change      C. develop       D. become

4. A. actions        B. views       C. messages      D. feeling

5. A. sign           B. human       C. spoken        D. foreign

6. A. out            B. at          C. in            D. up

7. A. when           B. until       C. since         D. while

8. A. raised         B. trained     C. ordered       D. led

9. A. cave           B. zoo         C. room          D. museum

10. A. pull          B. see         C. eat           D. reach

11. A. problem       B. position    C. food          D. ceiling

12. A. by            B. on          C. up            D. with

13. A. straight      B. strong      C. long          D. big

14. A. wall          B. box         C. ceiling       D. pole

15. A. knocked       B. picked      C. took          D. shook

16. A. lives         B. acts        C. thinks        D. plays

17. A. task          B. lesson      C. day           D. time

18. A. Here          B. There       C. So            D. Then

19. A. quite         B. already     C. even          D. still

20. A. observe       B. discover    C. gain          D. learn

 

III. 消化练习:

步骤1: 快速通读下列文章,然后在每个空格中想出一个单词,如果想不出就只要判断该空格的词性就行,挑战一下,够刺激的哦!

Washoe is a young Chimpanzee. She is not  1 ________  chimpanzee , though . Scientists are doing a research  2 ________  her . They want to see how civilized she can  3  ________ . Already she does many things a human can do .

For example , she has been learning how to exchange  4  ________ with people . The scientists are teaching her  5 ________ language . When she wants to be picked  6 ________  , Washoe points up with one finger . She rubs her teeth with her finger  7 ________  she wants to brush her teeth .This is done after every meal .

Washoe has also been  8 ________ to think out and find answers to problems . Once she was put in a  9 ________  with food hanging from the ceiling .It was too high to 10 ________  . After she considered the  11 ________  , she got a tall box to stand  12 ________  . The food was still too high to be reached .

Washoe found a  13  ________ pole . Then she climbed onto the  14 ________  , grasped the pole , and 15 ________  down the food with the pole .

Washoe  16 ________  like a human , too . The scientists keep her in a fully furnished house . After a hard  17 ________  in the laboratory , she goes home . 18 ________  she plays with her toys . She  19 ________  enjoys watching television before going to bed .

Scientists hope to  20  ________ more about people by studying our closest relativechimpanzee .

 

步骤2: 把下列各个打乱顺序的句子重新排好顺序并抄写下来

1

She is not ordinary chimpanzee, though. Washoe is a young Chimpanzee.They want to see how civilized she can  become_ . Scientists are doing a research on her. Already she does many things a human can do .

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2

For example , she has been learning how to exchange  feelings_ with people . she wants to brush her teeth .This is done after every meal .The scientists are teaching her  sign_ language . When she wants to be picked  up , Washoe points up with one finger . She rubs her teeth with her finger  when  she wants to brush her teeth.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

3

Washoe has also been  trained_ to think out and find answers to problems . After she considered the  problem  , she got a tall box to stand  on . The food was still too high to be reached . Once she was put in a  room  with food hanging from the ceiling .It was too high to reach .

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

46

Washoe found a  long  pole . The scientists keep her in a fully furnished house .Then she climbed onto the  box , grasped the pole , and   knocked  down the food with the pole . There she plays with her toys . She  even  enjoys watching television before going to bed .Washoe  lives  like a human , too .

After a hard  day in the laboratory , she goes home .

Scientists hope to  learn_ more about people by studying our closest relativechimpanzee .

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 


[参考答案]

I. 选择题:

1. B。 根据句意,此句应表示“提出一个新的治理方案”。A 为“发生”;C 表示“大声说出”;D为 “把…当作”。

2. C。 根据句意,A 为参加: school, class, meeting, lectureB表示参加某一组织或团体;D为 “料理”。

3. A。句意为:我觉得你的丈夫宠坏了孩子。be to blame没有被动形式。

4. AThe moment在此相当于连词,引导一个时间状语从句,意为“一…就”。

5. Bdeclare多指正式场合宣布官方的立场或态度,主语多为人或机构;predict意为“预测”,publish指以口头或印刷品的方式让群众知道,多指后者;announce除表示“宣布,宣告”之外,还可用于抽象意义,意思为“显示,预示”,主语为事物。

6. A。表示说明书时,instruction“说明,操作指南”,常用复数。introduction “介绍”;explanation “解释”。

7. 选项ABC后不接句子。unless是从属连词,引导条件状语从句。选D

8. Ddevote oneself to=be devoted to)“献身于”;stick to“坚持”;refer to“提及;参考”,它们都不合句意。

lead to中的to为介词,该句为强调句型,即事的强调形式。

9. D。句意为:不管我怎么努力读它,这个句子我就是不明白。

10. B。句意为:你父亲喜欢打高尔夫球,他真的很热衷于它。enthusiastic“热衷于”,后面常接介词about

  11. Cdeny“否认”;refuse 指一般的“拒绝,回绝”,不能接双宾语;reject“坚持拒绝,驳回”,语气强硬,正式;objectto)“反对”。句意为:政府驳回了日本发来的外交函件,因为在该函件中日本对两国之间的贸易问题态度不明确。

12. D。本题主要考查名词用法的区别。view, sightscene的用法已经在前面讲过了,

scenery指“风景,景色”或“舞台布景,道具布置”。句意为:那出戏的最后场面非常令人感动。

13. C。根据句子的结构分析,该句的主语是museum,谓语是has been pulled downonce __for exhibiting Nantong kites,应是定语部分,又由于build museum是被动关系,故C项为最佳选项。

14. Cexciting意为“令人兴奋的”,主语多为物。excited意为“感到兴奋的”,主语多为人,据此,本题应用exciting。另外,由于是两者间进行比较,所以exciting应用比较级形式,并用a lot来修饰。

15. Bfind“找到”;analyse“分析”;refer to“查阅,参考,谈到,涉及”;look up

“(在字典,电话薄中)查询”。句意为:在你正确理解一个句子之前你首先对它作一下分析。

 

II. [文章大意] 全文记叙了科学家研究一个叫Washoe的黑猩猩,试图弄清楚人类最近亲属的驯化程度的实验过程。

[解题指导]

1. BWashoe是一只小猩猩,然而它不是一只普通的猩猩。though表示转折;not ordinary chimpanzee意思是“不是普通的猩猩”,言外之意:它是一只非常特殊的猩猩。

2. Ddo research on sb . 给……做实验。

3. Dbecome civilized 为系表结构,意思是“(变得)驯化”。

4. C。在此其它几个选项有较大干扰性,从后文我们得知,Washoe只能做动作来发出信息,而actions“行为”,views“观点”,feelings“感情”,显然不合题意。

5. A。此空较难选出,我们必须联系后文,points up with one finger以及rubs her teeth只能算作手势语言,即sign language

6. Dpick up 搭便车。

7. A。当它想刷牙的时候,它用手磨牙。此空若联系其上句便不难选出。

8. B。第二段讲了Washoe的身势语言,而第三段则讲了它被训练思维能力。

9. C。从空后的ceiling得此答案。

10. Dreach在此意为“够得着”。

11. Athe problemIt food was too high to reach. 其它几个选项均不合题意。

12. B。它站在箱子上去够。 

13. C。想够到高处的东西,它只能找一个长(long)杆子。

14. B。它知道将箱子与杆子的高度加起来去够食物,因此它拿着杆子,爬上箱子。

15. A。食物挂在屋顶,因此它用杆子将它敲下来(knocked down)。

16. A。第四段讲了Washoe与人相似的生活。

17. C。经过一天的劳累,…… 。

18. BTherein her room

19. Ceven一词表示出乎意料。“它甚至睡觉前还要看电视”。

20. Dlearn sth . about sb .了解……的一些情况。

III. 消化训练(略)

 

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