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英语语法知识难点--形容词和副词(一)  

2011-04-07 14:54:48|  分类: Grammar 语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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英语语法知识难点--形容词和副词(一)
  I. 要点
  A. 形容词
  1、 形容词的用法
  形容词是用来修饰、描绘名词的,通常在句中作定语、表语或宾补,有时还可作状语。如:
  He is honest and hardworking.
  I found the book interesting.
  某些形容词与定冠词连用表示一类人作主语时,谓语通常用复数形式。如:
  The rich and the poor live in different parts of the city.
  The English like to be with their families.
  多个形容词作定语修饰名词的顺序:
  冠词+序数词+基数词+性质状态(描述性)+形状大小+新旧老少+颜色+国籍+材料+名词。如:
  the second five interesting big new red Chinese wall papers.
  2、 形容词比较等级的形式
  (1) 规则形式
  一般说来,单音节词及少数双音节词在后加-er; --est 来构成比较级和最高级;其他双音节词及多音节词在前加more, most.如:
  great-greater-greatest
  busy-busier-busiest
  important-more important-(the)most important
  (2) 不规则形式
  good (well)-better-best
  bad (ill)-worse-worst
  many (much)-more-most
  little-less-least
  (3) 形容词比较等级的用法
  ①表示两者的比较,用形容词的比较级+than. 如:
  He is cleverer than the other boys.
  This one is more beautiful than that one.
  ②表示两者以上的比较,用"the +形容词最高级(+名词)+of(in) …"如:
  He is the cleverest boy in his class.
  ③表示两者是同等程度,用"as +形容词原级+as". 如:
  He is as tall as I.
  I have as many books as you.
  ④ 越… 越…
  例如:The more I learn, the happier I am.
  ⑤ You can never be too careful. 越小心越好
  又如:You can never praise the teacher too highly.
  你怎么赞扬这个老师也不过分。
  ⑥ I have never spent a more worrying day.
  那一天是最令我担心的一天。
  I have never had a better dinner.
  这是我吃过的最好的一顿饭。
  ⑦ My English is no better than yours.
  我的英语和你的英语都不怎么样。
  B.副词
  1、 副词的种类
  (1) 时间副词 如:ago, before, already, just, now, early, late, finally, tomorrow等
  (2) 地点副词 如:here, there, near, around, in, out, up, down, back, away, outside等。
  (3) 方式副词 如:carefully, angrily, badly, calmly, loudly, quickly, politely, nervously等。
  (4) 程度副词 如:almost, nearly, much, greatly, a bit, a little, hardly, so, very等。
  2、 副词比较等级的用法
  其用法与形容词相似,只是副词最高级前可省略定冠词。如:
  Of all the boys he sings (the) most beautifully.
  We must work harder.
  3、 某些副词在用法上的区别
  (1) already, yet, still
  already表示某事物已经发生,主要用于肯定句;yet表示期待某事发生,主要用于否定句和疑问句;still表示某事还在进行,主要用于肯定句和疑问句,有时也可用于否定句。如:
  We've already watched that film.
  I haven't finished my homework yet.
  He still works until late every night.
  (2) too, as well, also, either
  too, as well和 also用于肯定句和疑问句,too和as well多用于口语,一般放在句末,而also多用于书面语,一般放在句中与动词连用。either用于否定句和否定的疑问句,往往放在句末。如:
  He went there too.
  He didn't go there either.
  I like you as well.
  I also went there.
  (3) hard, hardly
  hardly意为"几乎"与hard在词义上完全不同。如:
  I work hard every day.
  I can hardly remember that.
  (4) late, lately
  lately意为"最近、近来",late意为"晚、迟"。如:
  He never comes late.
  Have you been to the museum lately?

  II. 例题
  例1 Tom's father thinks he is already ____
  A high enough  B tall enough
  C enough high  C enough tall
  解析:该题正确答案是B。修饰人高用tall, 而建筑物的高用high,并且enough修饰形容词要放在形容词后面。因此该题选B。
  例2 ____ the worse I seem to be.
  A When I take more medicine
  B The more medicine I take
  C Taking more of the medicine
  D More medicine taken
  解析:该题正确答案为B。"the+形容词比较级+… , the +形容词比较级+…"意为越…,越…。该句意为:吃的药越多,我的病越是加重。
  例3"I haven't been to London yet".
  "I haven't been there ____".
  A too  B also  C either  D neither
  解析:该题正确答案为C。A和B都用于肯定句中。D-neither本身意为否定"两者都不",而C-either则用于否定句中,意为"也"。
  例4 Mr Smith was ____ moved at the news.
  A deep  B deeply  C very deep  D quite deeply
  解析:该题正确答案为B。A. deep用于副词时,修饰具体的深,如dig deep,而B-deeply则修饰表示感情色彩的词,如该题为deeply moved.另如deeply regret等。而D-quite和deeply均为副词,不能互相修饰。

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