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本人编写的《字母、音素和音标》一书,已由中国海洋大学出版社出版,我还编有《初中学业水平考试英语中考全攻略》、《武曾平六步教学法之新课标七、八、九年级英语全突破》(六三制)四本(其中,8年级分上下册)、《武曾平六步教学法之六、七、八、九年级英语全突破》(五四制)四本,还编有一本《英文圆体字字帖》。一本《新课标初中英语中考语法》正在编写中。快快乐乐学英语,学好英语更快乐!

Unit one grammar--Subject  

2011-05-25 07:45:47|  分类: 高中英语必修 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit one grammar--Subject

通过本章学习,使学生了解什么是主语,什么可以作主语,从而减少学生在语言使用中,尤其是书面表达(短文、中译英)中的错误。

二、教学重点和难点

动名词、不定式和主语从句作主语及要注意的事项。

1.名词,代词,动名词,不定式,以及主语从句都可以充当句子的主语。

AYou are wanted on the phone.

BJohn has three sisters. Mary is the cleverest of the three.

C---- What makes you so upset?

---- Losing the wallet.

DIt's no use crying over spilt milk.

ETo see is to believe.

FIt is possible to fly to the moon by spaceship.

GWhether he comes or not doesn't matter

HIt is well known that the moon has no light of its own.

IIt is not known where the meeting was held.

2.动名词与不定式都可在句子中作主语。动名词作主语时一般来说指的是一个概念或一个既成事实。如上边的例句C,问及什么令你感到不快时,回答说是Losing

my wallet。完整的句子应当是:Losing my wallet makes me soupset

再如:Teaching English is my job. Teaching English是一个概念名词,而不是一个动作。

3.当一个不定式短语作主语时,我们常用It作形式主语,而把真正的主语——动词不定式放到句子后边。这样的句型还用在It'sfor sb. to do…It's…of sb. To do…中。如果It's后边的形容词与人的天资、秉性有关时,必须用It'sof sb. to do…;这类形容词包括good, bad, clever, stupid, wise, foolish, cruel, mean 等。如果It's后边的形容词与人的天资、秉性无关时,则要用It's for sb. to do…。

4It is well-known to all that + clause It is known that +clause

It is said thatclause

It is believed thatclause

It is reported thatclause

以上五个句型中It是形式主语,真正的主语是that引导的从句。在这样的主语从句中that不能省略,就其本质讲,用Thatis well-knownThatis said也是可以的。但是经过长期使用,上述五个句型已经被固定下来。分别被用来表示众所周知、据说、据报道、据传等。

5In the following, we must use gerunds. They are:

It's no use doing…

It's no good doing…

It's useless doing…

A.与他保持密切联系没有用处。

B.与他争执没有用处。

6In familiar speech, the subject is sometimes left out when it is a pronoun. We call it omission of the subject.

AI thank you.

BI never heard of it.

CIt looks like it.

DIt sounds like common sense to me.

EIt serves him right.

 

若说动名词作主语指一个概念或一个事实的话,那么不定式作主语应当指一个具体的动作。因为不定式本身就表示一个具体动作,可能发生或可能还没发生。

ALosing my wallet makes me upset.

主语 Losing my wallet 是件事而不是动作。

BTo do that sort of thing is necessary.

主语To do that sort of thing 是要去做的事,或要做的动作。

3As is pointed above, when an infinitive phrase is used as the subject, we often use“It”to represent the infinitive phrase and put the real subject at the end of the sentence.

Sentence F if just an example. What else should we know about it?

AIt's mean of you to eat all the peaches.

BIt's clever of you to work out the maths problem.

CIt's wrong of you to tell lies.

DIt's important for us to learn English well.

EIt's necessary for Li Ming to attend the lecture given by Professor Liu.

4A.众所周知欧式足球风靡全世界80余个国家。

It's well-known that European football is played in over 80 countries.

B.据说罗伯特在国外留过学,但我不知道他在哪个国家学习过。

It's said that Robert once studied abroad; but I don't know what country he studied in.

C.据说是中国人最早发明指南针的。

It's believed that Chinese first invented the compass.

D.中国正在日益富强起来是个事实。

It is a fact that China is getting richer and stronger.

5We can put both sentences into English, using the three patterns.

AIt's no use keeping in close touch with him.

It's no good keeping in close touch with him.

It's useless keeping in close touch with him.

BIt's no use arguing with him.

It's no good arguing with him.

It's useless arguing with him.

6In spoken English we often hear sentences like this:

AThank you.

BNever heard of it.

CLooks like it.

DSounds like common sense to me.

EServes him right.

How can we an alyse these sentences?

四、精选题

1We wrote a letter of thanks to ______ had helped us.(    ) 

Awho    Bthose      Cwhom       Dwhoever

2Tom's mother kept telling him that he mustn't smokebut____ didn't help.( ) 

Ahe      Bwhich         Cit    Dthey

3____ you don't like him is none of my business. (    )

AWhat      BIf        CThat      DWhether

4Just after finishing writing the composition, _____. (     )

Athe doorbell rang loud           BNancy heard the doorbell rang

Csomeone knocked at the door      Dthe doorbell was rung

5----The exam was easy, wasn't it? (     )

----Yes, but I don't think _____ could pass it.

Asomebody    Banybody     Cnobody     Deverybody

6They live on a busy main road. ______ must be very noisy.(   )

AThere      BIt          CThat       DThey

7I'm sure the Olympic Games will be held in 2008 in China,_______? (    )

Awon't it   Bwon't they      Cshall we      Daren't I

8While watching TV, _______. (    )

Athe boy came in                Bmy mother was cooking

CI heard a terrible noise       Dthe doorbell rang

9He's late,_____ is often the case. (    )

Aas      Bwhat            Cit        Dthis

10It was the training that he has as a young man _____ led to his success.   Athat     Bit         Cwhich     Dwho

11______ about the history of that part because there is not 

enough written information. (    )

APeople know nothing         BMuch is known

CPeople know a lot      DLittle is known

答案:15  DCCBD  611  BBCAAA

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