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动词不定式作宾语补足语的类型  

2017-11-09 07:51:57|  分类: 中考 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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动词不定式作宾语补足语的类型

  1动词+宾语+not to do…”

adviseallowaskbegcausedirectencourageexpectforbidforceinviteorderpermitpersuaderemindrequestrequireteachtellwantwarn

   2动词+宾语+to be…”

considerdeclarediscoverfeelfindsuppose等。

   3动词+宾语+do…”

feelhavehearletmakenoticeobserveseewatch等。还有两个词组:listen tolook at.

   4help后的不定式可加to,也可不加to(美国人不加to时较多),但被动结构中要加to

   5动词+介词+宾语+to do…”

    shout to sb.to do   call on sb. to docount on sb. to do  depend on sb. to dowait for sb. to do等。

He shouted to me to come over.

    6、作宾语补足语的不定式,表示的动作在谓语所表示情况之前发生,就需要用完成形式:

He was known to have worked for the International Olympic Committee.

   7、作宾语补足语的不定式,表示一个正在进行的动作时需用进行形式:

He is believed to be living in Mexico.

   8、不定式作宾语补足语的被动形式:

He didn't want her son to be taken away.

 

    动词不定式既有动词的性质,又有名词的性质。它没有人称和数的变化,在句子中不能独立作谓语。动词不定式在句子中可以作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语、状语、表语、同位语等:动词不定式在句子中可以用作宾语补足语,常用的动词+宾语+不定式的句子结构中。不定式作宾语补足语的有以下八种类型:(下列句子中划线部分作宾语补足语)

    一、许多动词可跟一个宾语 + to do…构成句子,句中的不定式作宾语补足语;否定形式为动词+宾语+not to do…”。例如:do sb/sth to do sth

    My boss told me to type out two letters.

    分析:句中“My boss”做主语,“told”作谓语,“me”作宾语,划线部分作宾语补足语。请看下面的句子。

   They forbade her to leave the country.

Please remind me not to be late for the meeting.

动词+宾语+(not)to do…”的结构,不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:adviseallowaskbegcausedirectencourageexpectforbidforceinviteorderpermitpersuaderemindrequestrequireteachtellwantwarn等。

二、有些动词可跟宾语+to be…”构成句子,句中的不定式作宾语补足语。例如:

I consider him to be the best candidate.

分析:句中“I”做主语,“consider”作谓语,“him”作宾语,划线部分作宾语补足语。请看下面的句子。

I know him to be a liar.

I suppose him to be away from home.

动词+宾语+to be…”的结构,不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:considerdeclarediscoverfeelfindsuppose等。

三、有些动词(感官动词和使动词)后可跟不带to的不定式构成句子,句中的不定式作宾语补足语。例如:

He saw her enter the room.

分析:句中“He”做主语,“saw”作谓语,“her”作宾语,划线部分作宾语补足语。请看下面的句子。

She won't let me do it.

I heard her lock the door.

We watched the children play games.

动词+宾语+do…”的结构,不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:feelhavehearletmakenoticeobserveseewatch等。还有两个词组:listen tolook at.

注意:这类句子变为被动结构时,不定式前加to。请看下列句子,句中划线部分作宾语补足语。例如:

A child was seen to enter the building.

She was often heard to sing this song.

四、help后的不定式可加to,也可不加to(美国人不加to时较多),但被动结构中要加to。例如:

I'll help you(to) push the cart.

分析:句中“I”做主语,“will help”作谓语,“you”作宾语,划线部分作宾语补足语。

上句的被动语态为:You'll be helped to push the cart.

五、有些动词+介词的结构后也可跟不定式构成句子,句中的不定式作宾语补足语。例如:

He shouted to me to come over.

分析:句中“He”做主语,“shouted”作谓语,“to”为介词,“me”作宾语,划线部分作宾语补足语。请看下列句子,句子的结构为动词+介词+宾语+to do…”,划线部分为不定式,作宾语补足语。请看下面的句子。

I depend on you to do it.

I am counting on you to help me through.

动词+介词+宾语+to do…”的结构,不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:shout to sb.to docall on sb. to docount on sb. to dodepend on sb. to dowait for sb. to do等。

六、作宾语补足语的不定式,表示的动作在谓语所表示情况之前发生,就需要用完成形式:

He was known to have worked for the International Olympic Committee.

分析:句中“He”做主语,“was known”作谓语,使用了被动语态。由句意可知,为国际奥委会工作发生在前,大家知道发生在后。故不定式部分用完成形式,在句中作宾语补足语。请看下面的句子。

They are believed to have discussed the problem.

七、作宾语补足语的不定式,表示一个正在进行的动作时需用进行形式:

He is believed to be living in Mexico.

分析:句中“He”做主语,“is believed”作谓语,使用了被动语态。由于句子表达主语现在正在发生的情况,故用不定式的进行形式,句中划线部分作宾语补足语。请看下列句子。

Thousands were reported to be working in concentration camps.

He is thought to be hiding in the woods.

间或不定式作宾语补足语也可用于完成进行时。例如:

She is said to have been doing this work for twenty years.

八、不定式作宾语补足语的被动形式:

he didn't want her son to be taken away.

分析:句中“She”做主语,“didn't want”作谓语,“her son”作宾语,由于“her son”“take away”之间为被动关系,故用被动形式,句中划线部分作宾语补足语。请看下列句子。

I'd like this room to be redecorated.

He didn't wish the subject to be mentioned in the letter.

练习:

   1.They knew her very well. They had seen her ___ up from childhood.(1988全国)

    A. grow   B. grew  C. was growing D. to grow

2. The teacher asked us ___ so much noise.(2003北京)

    A. don't make   B. not make 

    C. not making   D. not to make

   3. My advisor encouraged ___ a summer course to improve my writing skills.(2004北京)

   A. for me taking   B. me taking 

   C. for me to take  D. me to take

   4.The flu is believed ___ by viruses that like to reproduce in the cells inside the human nose and throat.(2004上海)

   A. causing        B. being caused 

   C. to be caused   D. to have caused

   5.-Is Bob still performing

-I'm afraid not. He is said ___ the stage already as he has become an official.(2005江苏)

    A. to have left        B. to leave 

    C. to have been left   D. to be left

   6.The mother felt herself ___ cold and her hands trembled as she read the letter from the battlefield.(2006上海)

A. grow  B. grown  C. to grow  D. to have grown

   7.Energy drinks are not allowed ___ in Australia but are brought in from New Zealand.(2006上海)

   A. to make             B. to be made 

   C. to have been made   D. to be making

 

 

 

答案:

1.A  2.D  3.D  4.C  5.A  6.A  7.B   

 



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