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本人编写的《字母、音素和音标》一书,已由中国海洋大学出版社出版,我还编有《初中学业水平考试英语中考全攻略》、《武曾平六步教学法之新课标七、八、九年级英语全突破》(六三制)四本(其中,8年级分上下册)、《武曾平六步教学法之六、七、八、九年级英语全突破》(五四制)四本,还编有一本《英文圆体字字帖》。一本《新课标初中英语中考语法》正在编写中。快快乐乐学英语,学好英语更快乐!

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英语时间状语从句讲解与练习 (续)  

2018-06-24 08:34:51|  分类: 中考 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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(四)巧辨beforeuntil

在日常英语教学中,我们遇到学生问这样的一些问题:
  1.He will spend six hours at his desk____he finishes his composition.
   A.before     B.until     C.after     D.when
  2.The bike hit the tree____I could get off.
   A.when      B.before     C.while     D.until
  3.I knocked at the door for more than five minutes____Mrs white answered it.
   A.until      B.when      C.after     D.before
  4.It was____yesterday____be____the secret.
   A.not untilthatknew      B.untilwhenknew
   C.not beforethatfound     D.beforethatdidn't find
  怎样才能清楚地解释其选择的原因,这就涉及到untilbefore的区别问题。
  实际上,只要我们把握住两者使用时本身的含义及主句动词是终止性的,还是延续性的,肯定式,还是否定式两大点,就能容易地解决这类问题。现详细阐明如下:
  一、在下列情况下,两者可互换用,但含义略有不同。before表示……之前的意思,强  调时间先后关系;而until表示直到……的意思,主句是肯定句则表示主句动作的终   止时间;主句是否定句则强调主句动作的起始时间。
   1.主句为否定式终止性谓语动词。常见的动词是open,start,leave,arrive,finish,
  stop等。例如:
    (1)The noise of the street didn't stop until/before it was midnight.
    (2)The children won't come back until/before it is dark.
    (3)I didn't leave the lovely boy until/before his mother came home.
   2.主句为肯定式、延续性谓语词,这类动词用stand,stay,talk,be,wait等。例如:
    (1)He lived with his parents until/before he graduated from school.
    (2)I will wait until/before he comes to my help.
    (3)I shall stay heer until/before you come back.
  二、在下列情况下,用before不用until
   1.主句这肯定式、终止性谓语动词,只用before。例:
    (1)He fell asleep before I could take off his clothes.
    (2)We arrived there before it atarted to rain.
    (3)The holiday came to the end befor I knew it.
    (4)He almost knocked me down before he saw me.
   2.主句谓语动词强调动词的迟缓性,只用before,常伴有时间段状语或时间段暗示。例:
    (1)It was quite some time before he found the elephant at all.
    (2)We had walked a long way before we found some water.
    (3)We had sailed for two days before we saw the land.
    (4)The fire lasted about four hours before the firefighters could
      control it.
    (5)It was midnight before my brother came home.
    (6)It was three months before they met again.
   3.如果强调从句谓语动作未发生,就发生主句谓语动作,只用before。常译为未及不等……。例:
    (1)We can leave early in the morning before it gets too hot.
    (2)I must write it down before I forget it.
    (3)We do want to buy something now before prices go up.
   4.与其说……倒不如与其……毋宁……”只用before。例:
    (1)I would give up my job before I'd agree to be dismissed.
    (2)He will die of hunger before he will steal.
   5.在某些特定句型中用before。例如:
    (1)It was not long before the whole country rose up.
    (2)It will probably not be long before they understand each other.
  三、下列情况一般区别用until
   1.主句是持续性谓语动词时,肯定、否定都可以,但意义完全不同。肯定表动作终止,而否定表动作开始。例如:
    (1)We discussed the problem until/before he came back.我们一直讨论到他回
     来。
    (2)We didn't discuss the problem until he came back.我们一直等到他回来后才讨论问题。
   2.not…until句型尽管在某些情况下可与before互换用,但在强调句中一般仍用until
    例如:
    (1)It was not until he told me that I knew it.
    (2)It was not until he finished his homework that he went home.
    综上所述,前面的4条选择题中,第13题强调动作发生的迟缓性应选before。第2题表动作未及发生就发生主句动作也应选before。第4题为强调句应选A项。

(五)其他时间状语从句的用法

1.since引导的时间状语从句。

since引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性的动词,又可以是瞬时动词。一般情况下,从句谓语动词用一般过去时,而主句的谓语动词用现在完成时。但在It is +时间+since从句的句型中,主句多用一般现在时。例如:

I have been in Beijing since you left. 自从你离开以来,我一直在北京了。

Where have you been since I last saw you? 自上次我和你见面以后,你到哪里去了?

It is four years since my sister lived in Beijing. 我妹妹不在北京住有四年了。

It is five months since our boss was in Beijing.我们老板离开北京有五个月了。

知识扩展

1. It is since从。。。以来多长时间了(因为since +从句或名词,表示一段时间)

It is five years since we met last time.从我们上次见面已经五年了。

2. It is +before(。。。才)

It was a long time before I went to sleep again.

过了很长时间我才睡着。

It was an hour before(until) the police arrived.

过了一个小时,警察才来。

2.as soon as, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment, the instant, the minute, 等引导的时间状语从句。

这些连词都表示“一……就”。例如:

I will go there directly I have finished my breakfast. 吃完早饭,我立即到那里去。

The moment I heard the news, I hastened to the spot.我一听到消息,马上赶到了出事地点。

As soon as I reach Canada, I will ring you up. 我一到加拿大,就给你来电话。

3.by the time引导的时间状语从句。

注意时态的变化:在一般情况下,如果从句的谓语动词用一般过去时,主句的谓语动词用过去完成时;如果主句的谓语动词用一般现在时,主句的谓语动词用将来完成时。例如:

By the time you came back, I had finished this book.到你回来时,我已经写完这本书了。

By the time you come here tomorrow, I will have finished this work. 你明天来这儿的时候,我将已经完成此工作了。

注意:when while as after before as soon as since till /until by the time 在时间状语从句中,要注意时态一致。一般情况下主句是将来时的时候,从句要用一般现在时。

 


六、练习:在下列各句的空格中填入适当的连词
  1_________ he comes tomorrow, I shall ask where he has been.
  2_________ he was speaking, everybody listened carefully.
  3I saw her just _________ she was getting off the train.
  4Have a good look at that man _________ you pass him.
  5It was already eight o'clock _________ we got there.
  6. I was about to go out _________ a visitor came.
  7We'll go to the country at the beginning of June, ______ the summer harvest will start.
  8. He learned to speak German _________ he was in Berlin.
  9. Henry is in charge of the office ________ Mr. Smith is away.
  10. I listen to the recorder _________ I have time.
  11. He had learned Chinese _________ he came to China.
  12. _________ the work was done, we sat down to sum up experience.
  13. I haven't seen him _________ he moved to the other side of the town.
  14. I waited ________ he came back.
  15. It was not ________ he took off his eyeglasses that I recognized him.
  16. She likes everything to be in place ________ she starts to work.
  17. The thieves ran away _________ they caught sight of the police.
  18. They decided to go back home _________ their money ran out.
  19. We played outside till sunset, _________ it began to rain
  20. __________ I get to the airport, I will phone you to pick me up.
  21. They were about to leave ______ it began to rain.
  22. He always stay in bed ______ lunch time.
  23. I like playing tennis _________ my younger sister prefers watching ball games.
  24. _________ I understand your viewpoint, I don’t agree with you.
  25. _______ she grew older, she became more responsible.
二、从ABCD中选出可以填入空白处的最佳答案。

1. It was quiet ________ those big trucks started coming through the town.

A. before B. after C. until D. unless 

2. It seemed only seconds ________ the boy finished washing his face.

A. when B. before C. after D. even if

3. Hardly had he reached the school gate ________ the bell rang.

A. while B. when C. as D. as soon as 

4. ________ you begin, I think you must continue.

A. When B. Whenever C. Once  D. Even if

5. I remembered you ________ I saw you at the airport.

A. the moment B. while C. after D. once 

6. He was about to go to bed ________ the doorbell rang.

A. while B. as C. before D. when

7.________I listen to your advice, I get into trouble.

A. Every time B. When C. While D. Until

8. _____ John was watching TV, his wife was cooking.

A. As B. As soon as C. While D. Till

9. The children ran away from the orchard(果园) ______ they saw the guard.

A. the moment B. after C. before D. as
  Key:
  1. When   2. While / When   3. as    4. when/as   5. when      6. when
  7. when   8. while      9. while  10. whenever  11. before    12. After
  13. since  14. till/until   15. until  16. before   17. as soon as  18. before
  19. when  20. As soon as   21.when   22. until    23. while    24. While
  25. As

二、1. C 2. B 3. B 4. C 5. A 6. D 7.A 8.C 9.A

 

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